Efectos del calentamiento en el rendimiento físico y en la percepción psicológica en jugadores semi profesionales de fútbol. [Warm-up effects on physical performance and psychological perception in semi professional soccer players].

Marcos Pardeiro, Javier Yanci

Resumen


El objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar los efectos de un protocolo de calentamiento de 25 minutos en el rendimiento físico y en la percepción de estar preparados para afrontar un partido en jugadores de fútbol. 15 jugadores de fútbol realizaron su calentamiento estándar pre-partido de 25 minutos y antes (pretest) y después (postest) del mismo realizaban una batería de test físicos. También se registró la percepción del sueño, del estrés, de la fatiga y del dolor muscular inicial del jugador. Los resultados muestran que los jugadores se sienten más preparados para afrontar el partido después de realizar el calentamiento. Sin embargo, empeoran su rendimiento en la capacidad de aceleración (sprint 10 m, p < 0,01, TE = 0,73 y sprint 20 m p < 0,05, TE = 0,53) y no mejoran ni la capacidad de salto vertical con contra movimiento (CMJ) ni la capacidad de cambio de dirección (CODA). Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que el calentamiento de 25 minutos realizado induce a que los jugadores se sientan más preparados para afrontar el partido, pero disminuye su rendimiento físico, probablemente debido a la fatiga acumulada.

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 25 minutes warm-up protocol in soccer player physical performance and in their perception of being prepared to play a game. 15 soccer players did their standard 25 minutes lasting pre-match warm-up and they performed a battery of physical test before (pretest) and after (posttest) it. Players’ starting perception of sleep, stress, fatigue and muscle pain was also recorded. Results show that players feel more prepared to face a match after performing the warm-up. However, their acceleration capacity decreases (sprint 10 m, p < 0,01, TE = 0,73 and sprint 20 m p < 0,05, TE = 0,53). There are no effects in counter-movement jump (CMJ) or in change of direction ability (CODA). Results suggest that 25 minutes lasting warm-up routine induces players feel more prepared to face a match, but their physical performance decreases, probably because of accumulated fatigue

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2017.04802

Referencias/references

Abad, C. C.; Prado, M. L.; Ugrinowitsch, C.; Tricoli, V., & Barroso, R. (2011). Combination of general and specific warm-ups improves leg-press one repetition maximum compared with specific warm-up in trained individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2242-2245.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e8611b

Al Attar, W. S.; Soomro, N.; Pappas, E.; Sinclair, P. J., & Sanders, R. H. (2015). How effective are F-MARC injury prevention programs for soccer players? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(2), 205-17.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0404-x

Andrade, D.; Henriquez-Olguin, C.; Beltran, A.; Ramirez, M.; Labarca, C.; Cornejo, M.; Álvarez, C., & Ramirez-Campillo, R. (2014). Effects of general, specific and combined warm-up on explosive muscular performance. Biology of Sport, 32(2), 123-128.
https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1140426

Bangsbo, J.; Nørregaard, L., & Thorsø, F. (1991). Activity profile of competition soccer. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, 16(2), 110-116.

Bishop, D. (2003). Warm Up II. Sports Medicine, 33(7), 483-498.
https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333070-00002

Bloomfield, J.; Polman, R., & O’Donoghue, P. (2007). Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(1), 63-70.

Bosco, C.; Luhtanen, P., & Komi, P. V. (1983). A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 50(2), 273-282.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422166

Burkett, L. N.; Phillips, W. T., & Ziuraitis, J. (2005). The best warm-up for the vertical jump in college-age athletic men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 673-676.

Calleja-González, J.; Los Arcos, A.; Mejuto, G.; Casamichana, D.; San Román-Quintana, J., y Yanci, J. (2014). Reproducibilidad de test de aceleración y cambio de dirección en fútbol. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 11(40), 104-115.
https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2015.04001

Casamichana, D., y Castellano, J. (2013). Utilidad de la escala de percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo para cuantificar la carga de entrenamiento en fútbol. Futbolpf: Revista de Preparación Física en el Fútbol, 8, 53-70.

Christensen, B. K., & Nordstrom, B. J. (2008). The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and dynamic stretching techniques on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1826-1831.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817ae316

Church, J. B.; Wiggins, M. S.; Moode, F. M., & Crist, R. (2001). Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(3), 332-336.
https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200108000-00012

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.: Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Coutts, A. J.; Rampinini, E.; Marcora, S. M.; Castagna, C., & Impellizzeri, F. M. (2009). Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(1), 79-84.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.08.005

Foster, C. (1998). Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(7), 1164-1168.
https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199807000-00023

Hawley, J. A.; Williams, M. M.; Hamling, G. C., & Walsh, R. M. (1989). Effects of a task-specific warm-up on anaerobic power. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 233-236.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.23.4.233

Hooper, S. L.; Mackinnon, L. T.; Howard, A.; Gordon, R. D., & Bachmann, A. W. (1995). Markers for monitoring overtraining and recovery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(1), 106-112.
https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199501000-00019

Los Arcos, A.; Yanci, J.; Mendiguchia, J., & Gorostiaga, E. M. (2014). Rating of muscular and respiratory perceived exertion in professional soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(11), 3280-3288.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000540

McMillian, D. J.; Moore, J. H.; Hatler, B. S., & Taylor, D. C. (2006). Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: the effect on power and agility performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 492-499.
https://doi.org/10.1519/18205.1

McGowan, C.J.; Pyne, D.B.; Thompson, K.G., & Rattray, B. (2015). Warm-Up Strategies for Sport and Exercise: Mechanisms and Applications. Sports Medicine, 45(11), 1523-1546.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0376-x

Mohr, M.; Krustrup, P., & Bangsbo, J. (2003). Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(7), 519-528.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000071182

Mohr, M.; Krustrup, P.; Nybo, L.; Nielsen, J. J., & Bangsbo, J. (2004). Muscle temperature and sprint performance during soccer matches--beneficial effect of re-warm-up at half-time. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 14(3), 156-162.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00349.x

Needham, R. A.; Morse, C. I., & Degens, H. (2009). The acute effect of different warm-up protocols on anaerobic performance in elite youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2614-2620.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b1f3ef

Reilly, T., & Thomas, V. (1976). A motion analysis of work-rate in different positional roles in professional football match-play. Journal of Human Movement Study, 2, 87-97.

Rienzi, E.; Drust, B.; Reilly, T.; Carter, J. E. L., & Martin, A. (2000). Investigation of anthropometric and work-rate profiles of elite South American international soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 40, 162-169.

Salaj, S., & Markovic, G. (2011). Specificity of jumping, sprinting, and quick change-of-direction motor abilities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(5), 1249-1255.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da77df

Sassi, R. H.; Dardouri, W.; Yahmed, M. H.; Gmada, N.; Mahfoudhi, M. E., & Gharbi, Z. (2009). Relative and absolute reliability of a modified agility T-test and its relationship with vertical jump and straight sprint. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1644-1651.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b425d2

Sotiropoulos, K.; Smilios, I.; Christou, M.; Barzouka, K.; Spaias, A.; Douda, H., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2010). Effects of warm-up on vertical jump performance and muscle electrical activity using half-squats at low and moderate intensity. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9(2), 326-331.

Stølen, T.; Chamari, K.; Castagna, C., & Wisløff, U. (2005). Physiology of Soccer. Sports Medicine, 35(6), 501-536.
https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535060-00004

Stone, N. M., & Kilding, A. E. (2009). Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes. Sports Medicine, 39(8), 615-642.
https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939080-00002

Thompsen, A. G.; Kackley, T.; Palumbo, M. A., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2007). Acute effects of different warm-up protocols with and without a weighted vest on jumping performance in athletic women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(1), 52-56.
https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200702000-00010

Towlson, C.; Midgley, A. W., & Lovell, R. (2013). Warm-up strategies of professional soccer players: practitioners’ perspectives. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(13), 1393-1401.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.792946

Van den Tillaar, R., & Von Heimburg, E. (2016). Comparison of two types of warm-up upon repeated-sprint performance in experienced soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(8), 2258-2265.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001331

Vigne, G.; Gaudino, C.; Rogowski, I.; Alloatti, G., & Hautier, C. (2010). Activity profile in elite Italian soccer team. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(5), 304-310.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1248320

Woods, K.; Bishop, P., & Jones, E. (2007). Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Medicine, 37(12), 1089-1099.
https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737120-00006

Yanci, J.; Reina, R.; Los Arcos, A., & Cámara, J. (2013). Effects of different contextual interference training programs on straight sprinting and agility performance of primary school students. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12(3), 601-607.

Young, W. B., & Behm, D. G. (2002). Should static stretching be used during a warm-up for strength and power activities? Strength and Conditioning Journal, 24(6), 33-37.
https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200212000-00006

Zois, J.; Bishop, D., & Aughey, R. (2015). High-intensity warm-ups: effects during subsequent intermittent exercise. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10, 498-503.
https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0338

Zois, J.; Bishop, D. J.; Ball, K., & Aughey, R. J. (2011). High-intensity warm-ups elicit superior performance to a current soccer warm-up routine. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(6), 522-528.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.012

 


Palabras clave/key words


deportes colectivos; fatiga; sprint; agilidad; salto; team sports; fatigue; sprint; agility; jump.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168sello_calidad_fecyt_2015
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License