Análisis de la complejidad perceptivo-motriz y psicológica del penalti en el fútbol. [Analysis of the perceptual-motor and psychological complexity of the soccer penalty kick].

José A. Navia, Luis Miguel Ruiz

Resumen


Un pensamiento habitual entre los profesionales del mundo del fútbol es que los penaltis son una lotería, a pesar de que numerosos estudios empíricos que demuestran lo contrario. En este estudio se presenta una completa revisión de los estudios realizados en torno a la acción de penalti en el fútbol. El documento se articula en tres apartados principales: cómo aumentar las opciones del portero, cómo aumentar las opciones del tirador y por último, cómo aumentar las opciones del equipo en las tandas. En cada uno de los apartados se revisan cómo interactúan tres factores influyentes en el rendimiento de los penaltis desde una perspectiva holística: el componente perceptivo-motor, el análisis probabilístico, y el componente psicológico. Si existe un punto en común entre todos los estudios consultados es precisamente el énfasis que ponen los autores en la recomendación de entrenamiento de estas acciones. Por lo tanto, se concluye que los penaltis no son una lotería sino que deben entrenarse de forma adecuada para mejorar los resultados. En este sentido, el presente artículo podría resultar útil a la hora de programar entrenamiento ya que presenta un resumen de los principales hallazgos de la investigación en penaltis de fútbol.

Abstract

A common though among soccer professionals is that penalties are a lottery, despite the existence of numerous empirical works that prove the opposite. An ample review about soccer penalty kick studies is presented in the current paper. The document is structured in three main sections: how to improve goalkeeper’s success probability, how to improve kicker’s success probability, and how to improve team’s success probability in a penalty shootout. Within each of the three sections, it is review how three of the factors that influence penalty kick performance interact. That is, perceptual-motor skills, information from players’ previous performance and psychological factors. A common feature of the entirely reviewed studies is the emphasis with which authors strongly suggest training penalty kicks. Therefore, it can be concluded that soccer penalty kicks are not a lottery but should be appropriately trained in order to improve the achievements. In this regards, this paper may result helpful when programming training since main research findings concerning soccer penalty kick are displayed.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2014.03706

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Palabras clave/key words


penalti; fútbol; percepción-acción; rendimiento; entrenamiento; penalty; soccer; perception-action; performance; training.

Texto completo/Full Text:

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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