Revisión de los factores de riesgo y los programas de prevención de la lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior en fútbol femenino: propuesta de prevención. [Review risk factors and prevention programs of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female football: prevention proposal].

Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Ángel Cuellar, Jaime González, Nerea Bastida, Elsa Echarri, Jana Gallardo, Víctor Paredes

Resumen


Los objetivos de esta revisión fueron analizar las causas y factores de riesgo de la lesión del LCA, realizar una revisión sistemática de los programas de prevención actuales y proponer un protocolo para la prevención de la lesión de LCA. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PuBmed, PeDro y EBSCO, teniendo en cuenta palabras clave en términos DeCS y MeSH, los cuales aportaron 606 y 228 artículos respectivamente. De acuerdo a los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionan 18 artículos para ser estudiados. En cuanto a los factores de riesgo de cualquier lesión de rodilla son: lesión previa, fatiga muscular y desequilibrio de fuerza entre isquiotibiales y cuádriceps (McCall y col., 2014). Específicamente para la lesión del LCA las causas pueden ser el ángulo Q, el valgo de rodilla, el genu recurvatum, el pie pronador y la torsión externa de la tibia. Además el LCA de la mujer es menor en longitud y en sección transversal que del el hombre (Sutton y  col., 2013). Los programas de prevención que han mostrado disminuir la frecuencia lesional inciden en el trabajo del core, la propiocepción, el control motor, el aprendizaje de la técnica de amortiguación, la flexibilidad y el trabajo excéntrico (McCall y col., 2014). En conclusión, se exponen los factores de riesgo específicos a esta lesión en mujeres junto a la eficacia mostrada en los diferentes programas preventivos analizados. Los programas de prevención incluyen el trabajo de la fuerza neuromuscular, estiramientos, pliometría, equilibrio, core y corrección de la técnica de amortiguación del salto y los cambios de dirección.

Abstract

The aims of this review were to analyce the causes and risk factors for ACL injury, a systematic review of current prevention programs and pose a protocol for preventing of ACL injury. Searches were performed in PubMed, PeDRO, and EBSCO data, taking into account keywords in DeCS and MeSH terms, which provided with 606 and 228 articles respectively. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected for study. For any knee injury risk factors are a previous injury, fatigue and muscle strength imbalance between hamstrings and the quadriceps muscle (McCall y col., 2014). In the case of ACL injury studies focus on causes like the Q angle, the valgus knee, the genu recurvatum, the pronator foot and the external tibial torsion among others. In addition, the ACL of women is smaller in length and has smaller cross section than the ACL of men (Sutton y  Bullock, 2013). Prevention programs included training the core, propioception, flexibility, motor control, learn technique and eccentric work (McCall y col., 2014; Myer y col., 2012; Stevenson y col., 2014; Sugimoto y col., 2014). In conclusion, the specific risk factors for this injury in women are presented with the effectiveness shown in the different preventive programs analyzed. The prevention programs analyzed include improvements for neuromuscular strength, stretching, plyometry, balance, core and correction of the technique of jump landing and changes of direction.

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2017.04803

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Palabras clave/key words


ligamento cruzado anterior; fútbol femenino; factores de riesgo; programas de prevención; anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); female football; risk factors; prevention programs.

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