Efectos en el rendimiento físico a corto plazo de dos programas de entrenamiento neuromuscular con diferente orientación aplicados en jugadores de fútbol de élite U-17. [Short-term physical performance effects of two different neuromuscular oriented training programs on U-17 elite soccer players].

Javier Raya-González, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Manuel Moreno-Puentedura, Jesús Ruiz-Márquez, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal

Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el efecto de dos programas de entrenamiento neuromuscular (orientación vertical vs horizontal), realizados durante 6 semanas, sobre el rendimiento físico en jugadores de fútbol. Dieciséis futbolistas de 16,6 ± 0,3 años fueron asignados de manera aleatoria en dos grupos experimentales que complementaron su entrenamiento habitual de fútbol con un programa de entrenamiento neuromuscular dos días a la semana. El entrenamiento del grupo vertical (n=8, GV) consistió en los ejercicios ½ sentadilla y squat lateral realizados en un dispositivo inercial, y salto vertical al cajón, y el entrenamiento del grupo horizontal (n=8, GH) estuvo basado en ejercicios resistidos de sprint lineal y con cambio de dirección (COD). Antes y después del periodo de intervención se midió la altura de salto vertical, el tiempo de sprint lineal y COD y la potencia del tren inferior. Se obtuvieron mejoras sustanciales (probables a muy probables) en GV en salto con contramovimiento (CMJ) [TE: 0,49, VC: Probable (93/7/0%)], test de Abalakov (ABK) [TE: 0,38, VC: Probable (83/16/1%)] y velocidad media propulsiva (VMP) en todas las cargas utilizadas, además de empeorar el tiempo de sprint lineal y COD hacia la izquierda (COD-I). El GH mejoró sustancialmente el tiempo de sprint 10m [TE = 0,63, VC: Muy Probable (98/2/0%)], COD hacia la derecha (COD-D) [TE = 0,36, VC: Probable (76/23/1%)], COD-I [TE = 0,34, VC: Probable (80/19/1%)], y VMP con 15-30-50kg, además de una posible mejora en el tiempo de sprint en 20 y 30m. El análisis inter-grupos mostró mejoras sustanciales mayores en GV en CMJ [TE = 0,39, VC: Muy Probable (76/22/0%)], y en GH en tiempo de sprint en 10-20-30m y COD hacia la derecha (COD-D). Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que el entrenamiento del GH es más efectivo en la optimización de la condición física específica del futbolista.

Abstract

The aim of this research was to compare the effects of two different neuromuscular training programs (vertical vs. horizontal orientation), conducted during 6 weeks, on the physical performance of soccer players in-season. Sixteen soccer players of 16.6 ± 0.3 years were randomly assigned to two equally large experimental groups, and both supplemented the soccer training with a specific neuromuscular training program 2 days/week. Vertical group´s training (n=8, VG) was composed by half-squat using a flywheel device and vertical jump to box and horizontal group´s training (n=8, HG) consisted on linear and non-linear resisted sprints. Before and after the training period jumping ability, linear and non-linear sprint and lower-limb power were measured. Substantial improvements (likely to very likely) were found in the VG in countermovement jump (CMJ) (ES: 0.49), Abalakov test (ABK) (ES: 0.38) and Mean Propulsive Velocity (all load measured), in addition to decrease the performance in linear and non-linear sprint (COD-L). The HG improved substantially in 10m sprint (Effect size [ES]: 0.63), COD-R (ES: 0.36), COD-L (ES: 0.34) and in Mean Propulsive Velocity in 15-30-50kg. Furthermore, a possible improvement in 20 and 30m sprint was also reported in HG. Between-groups analysis showed greater substantial improvements in VG in CMJ (ES: 0.39), and in HG in 10-20-30m sprint and COD-R. The results obtained suggest that horizontal group´s training program could be more effective in order to optimize the specific physical condition of the soccer players.

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2017.04801

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Palabras clave/key words


capacidad de salto; velocidad media propulsiva; sobrecarga excéntrica; sprint lineal; cambio de dirección; jumping ability; mean propulsive velocity; eccentric-overload; linear sprint; change-of-direction

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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