Análisis de la fuerza isométrica en la propulsión y tracción en slalom en silla de ruedas y su relación con el rendimiento y la clasificación funcional. [Isometric force in wheelchair slalom during traction and propulsion and their relationship with performance and functional classification].

Raúl Reina, Manuel Moya, José Manuel Sarabia, Rafael Sabido

Resumen


El sistema de clasificación del slalom en silla de ruedas contempla como elegibles a deportistas con parálisis cerebral y daño cerebral adquirido. La tendencia actual en los sistemas de clasificación es realizar una clasificación integrada y funcional basada en evidencias científicas. En este estudio participaron 9 deportistas (21,2 ± 4,7 años) de nivel nacional con parálisis cerebral (5 ♂ y 4 ♀) de las divisiones D2, D3 y D4, relacionadas con los perfiles funcionales de la Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Se realizaron dos pruebas de fuerza máxima isométrica (propulsión y tracción) sobre la silla de competición, donde se midió fuerza máxima (Fmax), fuerza media (Fmed), tiempo de ejecución y tiempo hasta diferentes porcentajes de Fmax. Además, se realizaron dos pruebas de rendimiento específicas: 16 m de desplazamiento lineal con una puerta de inversión situada a 8; y dos desplazamientos lineales de 4 m, realizando un zig-zag de ida y vuelta entre ambos, registrando el tiempo de ejecución con un sistema de cronometraje electrónico. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las pruebas de propulsión entre los deportistas de D3 y D4 para la Fmax (p = 0,007) y Fmed (p = 0,002), siendo mayores los valores de esta última. En las pruebas de rendimiento específico, se encontraron diferencias entre D2 y D3 (inversión: p = 0,034 y zig-zag: p = 0,010), siendo menores los tiempos de D3. Los resultados muestran que no hay una relación lineal entre las divisiones y el rendimiento mostrado. 

Abstract

Athletes with cerebral palsy and acquired cerebral damage are eligible for competition according to the wheelchair slalom classification system. The current trend in the classification systems is to perform an integrated and functional classification based on scientific evidence. Nine national level wheelchair slalom athletes (21,2 ± 4,7 years) from D2, D3 and D4 divisions, as per functional profiles of the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association, took part in the study (5 ♂ and 4 ♀). Participants performed two maximal isometric force tests (propulsion and traction) with their competition wheelchairs in which maximum force (Fmax), average force (Fmed), execution time and time used to reach different Fmax percentages were recorded. In addition, participants carried out two specific performance tests: a 16 m linear sprint with an inversion door after 8 m; and two 4 m linear displacements with a zig-zag round trip. The measured variable was execution time using photocell gates. Significant differences were found between D3 and D4 in propulsion tests for Fmax (p = 0,007) and Fmean (p = 0,002), being this last one higher. Significant statistical differences were found between D2 and D3 in specific performance tests (inversion: p = 0,034 and zig-zag: p = 0,010), being D3 the quickest group. Results show a non-linear relationship between classification divisions and the performance.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03402

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Palabras clave/key words


parálisis cerebral; deporte; clasificación; fuerza; cerebral palsy; wheelchair sport; classification; strength.

Texto completo/Full Text:

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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