Contribución de los brazos en el aterrizaje del salto vertical. [Contribution of the arms in the landing of the vertical jump].

Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila, David Pancorbo, Jesús Olivares, Francisco Javier Rojas

Resumen


Se pretende comprobar el efecto que tiene la contribución de los brazos en los aterrizajes de los saltos verticales sobre las componentes de las fuerzas de reacción, goniometría articular y contribución de los segmentos corporales al desplazamiento vertical del centro de gravedad (CG). Han participado 29 deportistas donde el salto vertical constituye una habilidad básica. Todos los participantes debían dejarse caer desde una altura de 0.5 m y amortiguar la caída en dos situaciones experimentales: a) sin acción de brazos y b) con participación libre de los brazos. Se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz, sincronizada temporalmente a una cámara de vídeo a 240 Hz que registraba el plano sagital de los saltos. Los saltos han sido considerados como un movimiento simétrico que se desarrolla en un plano, compuesto por un modelo mecánico simplificado de ocho segmentos. Los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que la participación libre de los brazos contribuye a reducir del segundo pico máximo de fuerza, lo que se produce debido a la mayor distancia de frenado del CG y una menor reducción de la velocidad vertical del CG, lo que podría contribuir a reducir el riesgo de lesiones. La contribución segmentaria al desplazamiento vertical del CG indica que la restricción de los brazos durante los aterrizajes produce un cambio importante en el mecanismo de absorción de las fuerzas que podría incrementar la tensión en el ligamento cruzado anterior de la rodilla.

Abstract

The purpose was to evaluate the effect of the arms action during vertical jump landing on ground reaction forces, joint kinematic and vertical displacement of the center of gravity (CG).  29 athletes where the vertical jump constitutes a basic skill in their sport have participated in this study. All participants had to drop from a height of 0.5 m and cushion the fall in two experimental situations: a) without arm action and b) with free participation of the arms. A force platform, operating at 500 Hz, was synchronized temporarily to a video camera at 210 Hz which recorded the sagittal plane of the jumps. The jumps have been considered as a symmetrical movement that develops in a plane, composed by a simplified mechanical model of eight segments. The results have shown that the free participation of the arms contributes to reduce the second peak of force, which is due to the greater braking distance of the CG and a smaller reduction of the vertical velocity of the CG, which could contribute to reducing the risk of injury. The segmental contribution to the vertical displacement of the CG indicates that the restriction of the arms during landings produces a significant change in the mechanism of absorption of the forces that could increase the tension in the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee.

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2018.05206

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Palabras clave/key words


biomecánica; recepción salto vertical; amortiguación; lesiones deportivas; biomechanics; vertical jump reception; cushioning; sports injuries

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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