Orientaciones de meta como mediadoras en la relación entre perfeccionismo y ansiedad precompetitiva. [Goal orientations as mediators in the relationship between perfectionism and precompetitive anxiety].

Heriberto Antonio Pineda-Espejel, Edgar Alarcón, Zaida López-Ruiz, Marina Trejo

Resumen


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto del perfeccionismo estado y las orientaciones de meta, sobre la ansiedad precompetitiva, a través de dos modelos que prueban las relaciones secuenciales. Un primer modelo analizó el efecto del perfeccionismo global en competición, sobre las orientaciones de meta, y consecuencias de ansiedad precompetitiva. Posteriormente, el perfeccionismo se separó en dos dimensiones, positiva y negativa, a partir de las facetas de esfuerzo por la perfección, y reacciones negativas ante la imperfección, respectivamente. Tal modelo probó la secuencia: dos facetas del perfeccionismo multidimensional en competición, orientaciones de meta, y consecuencias de ansiedad precompetitiva.  Adicionalmente, en este segundo modelo se analizó el papel mediador de las orientaciones de meta. Participaron 171 deportistas de alto rendimiento, de ambos sexos, con una edad de 23.5 años (DT= 6.1), quienes respondieron a un conjunto de cuestionarios para medir las variables de estudio previo a una competición. Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales mostraron que el perfeccionismo global predice la orientación al ego, y ésta la ansiedad cognitiva. No obstante, cuando dos dimensiones del perfeccionismo son diferenciadas, ambas facetas del perfeccionismo predicen positivamente la orientación al ego y los síntomas de ansiedad; contrariamente el esfuerzo por la perfección también predice positivamente la orientación a la tarea, y ésta negativamente ambas ansiedades. En conclusión, se refuerza que el perfeccionismo estado puede ser adaptativo, ya que el esfuerzo por la perfección en competición reduce los síntomas de ansiedad precompetitiva a través de la orientación a la tarea; por lo que las orientaciones de meta explican teóricamente la relación entre el esfuerzo por la perfección y la ansiedad precompetitiva.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze a predictive model of state perfectionism on goal orientations, and precompetitive anxiety and self-confidence, through two models that analyze sequential relationships. A first model analyzed the effect of global perfectionism in competition, on goal orientations, and consequences of precompetitive anxiety and self-confidence. Subsequently, perfectionism was separated into two dimensions, positive and negative, from the facets of striving for perfection, and negative reactions to imperfection, respectively. Such a model proved the sequence: two facets of multidimensional perfectionism in competition, goal orientations, and consequences of precompetitive anxiety and self-confidence. Additionally, the mediating role of goal orientations within the second model was analyzed. 171 high-performance athletes of both sexes, with an age of 23.5 years participated in the study, who answered a set of questionnaires to measure the study variables before the competition. The results of structural equation models showed that global perfectionism predicts ego orientation and cognitive anxiety. However, the two facets of perfectionism positively predict ego orientation and anxiety symptoms. Contrary to the striving for perfection also positively predicts the orientation in the task, and this negatively both anxieties. In conclusion, it is reinforced that state perfectionism can be an adaptive trait, since the striving for perfection, if accompanied by a predominance of task orientation. So the goal orientations theoretically explain the relationship between the striving for perfection and precompetitive anxiety.

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2018.05205

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Palabras clave/key words


personalidad; motivación; emoción; competición; modelos de ecuaciones estructurales; mediación; personality; motivation; emotion; competition; Structural Equation Models; mediation.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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