The effect of motor activity on improved memory andemotional well-being in elderly women. (Influencia de la actividad motora en la mejora de la memoria y del estado de ánimo emocional de mujeres mayores).

Mª Carmen Requena Hernández, Marta Zubiaur González, Alberto Fernández Lucas, Tomas Ortiz Alonso

Resumen


Abstract

This study researches the effect of a wide range of different types of intervention (cognitive versus cognitive + motor versus non-intervention) on the memory and mental state of elderly women complaining of memory loss and leading a sedentary life. Subjects (N=102, 80% women, age M/SD = 76/5 years) were distributed randomly into the three treatment groups. The cognitive training consisted of attention exercises, language, association of ideas and problem solving while the motor training consisted of proprioceptive and dynamic exercises related to the body schema, balance and movement coordination. The duration of the treatment period was 8 months. The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Yesavage´s Geriatric Scale of Depression (GDS) were applied before and after the treatment period. Results showed improvements associated with both interventions but deterioration in the control group. However, only the cognitive-motor group showed relevant improvement according to the above-mentioned tests.

Results suggest that combined cognitive-motor intervention is more promising than the simply cognitive in improving memory function and the state of well-being in women who complained of subjective memory loss, and that both techniques are effective when compared with non-intervention.

Key words: ageing; complaints of memory loss; motor activity and cognitive training; mobility.

Resumen

Este estudio investiga el efecto de diversos tipos de intervención (cognitiva versus cognitiva + motora versus no intervención) en la memoria y el estado de ánimo emocional en mujeres mayores con quejas de memoria y con una vida pasiva. Los sujetos (N=102, 80% mujeres, edad M/SD = 76/5 años) se distribuyeron de forma aleatoria en los tres grupos de tratamiento. El entrenamiento cognitivo consistió en ejercicios de atención, lenguaje, asociación de ideas y resolución de problemas. El entrenamiento motor consistió en ejercicios propioceptivos y dinámicos relacionados con el esquema corporal, el equilibrio y la coordinación de movimientos. La intervención se llevó a cabo durante 8 meses. Se aplicaron el Test Conductual de Memoria Rivermead (RBMT) y la Escala Geriátrica de Depresión de Yesavage (GDS) antes y después. Los resultados demuestran mejorías asociadas a ambas intervenciones y deterioro en el grupo de control. Sin embargo, sólo el grupo de intervención cognitiva-motora muestra una mejoría relevante según las pruebas citadas.

Los resultados sugieren que la intervención combinada cognitiva-motora es más prometedora que la intervención simplemente cognitiva para mejorar la función de la memoria y del estado de ánimo en mujeres con pérdidas de memoria subjetivas, y que las dos son eficaces en comparación con la no intervención.

Palabras claves: envejecimiento; pérdidas de memoria; actividad motora y entrenamiento cognitivo; movilidad.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2008.01302

Texto completo en PDF

---------------------------------------------------------------------

References/referencias

Albert, S. M., Tabert, M. H., Dienstag, A., Pelton, G., & Devanand, D. (2002). The impact of mild cognitive impairment on functional abilities in the elderly. Current Psychiatry Reports, 4, 64-68.
doi:10.1007/s11920-002-0015-8
PMid:11814398

Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Doraiswamy, M. P., Watkins, L., Hoffman, B. M., Barbour, K. A., Herman, S., Craighead, W. E., Brosse, A. L., Waugh, R., Hinderliter, A., & Sherwood, A. (2007). Exercise and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 587-596.
doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318148c19a
PMid:17846259    PMCid:2702700

Butler, R. N., Forette, F., & Greengross, B. S. (2004). Maintaining cognitive health in an ageing society. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 124, 119-121.
doi:10.1177/146642400412400312
PMid:15195451

Campbell, A. J., Robertson, M. C., Gardner, M. M., Norton, R. N., & Buchner, D. M. (1999). Falls prevention over 2 years: A randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older. Age and Ageing, 28, 513-518.
doi:10.1093/ageing/28.6.513
PMid:10604501

Chertkow, H. (2002). Mild cognitive impairment. Current Opinion in Neurology, 15, 401-407.
doi:10.1097/00019052-200208000-00001
PMid:12151835

Comijs, H. C., Deeg, D. J. H., Dik, M. G., Twisk, J. W. R., & Jonker, C. (2002). Memory complaints; the association with psycho-affective and health problems and the role of personality characteristics A 6-year follow-up study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72, 157-165.
doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00453-0


Donat, H., & Özcan, A. (2007). Comparison of the effectiveness of two programmes on older adults at risk of falling: Unsupervised home exercise and supervised group exercise. Donat and Özcan Clinical Rehabilitation, 21, 273-283.
doi:10.1177/0269215506069486
PMid:17329285

Eisdorfer, C., Nowlin, J., & Wolkie, F. (1970). Improvement of learning in the aged by modification of autonomic nervous system activity. Science, 170, 1327-1329.
doi:10.1126/science.170.3964.1327
PMid:4920816

Feigenbaum, M. S., & Pollock, M. (1999). Prescription of resistance training for health and disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 58, 38-45.
doi:10.1097/00005768-199901000-00008

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading the cognitive status of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198.
doi:10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

Geerlings, M. I., Jonker, C., Bouter, L. M., Ader, H. J., & Schmand, B. (1999). Associations between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer’s disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition. Am. J. Psychiatry, 156, 531-537.
PMid:10200730

Himann, J. E., Cunnigangham, D. A., Rechnitzer, P. A., & Paterson, D. H. (1988). Age-related changes in speed of walking. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20, 161-166.
doi:10.1249/00005768-198820020-00010

Imms, F. J., & Edholm, O. G. (1981). Studies of gait and mobility in the elderly. Age and Ageing, 10, 147-156
doi:10.1093/ageing/10.3.147
PMid:7270322

Karlene, B., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. F., et al (2002). Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 288, 2271-2281.
PMid:17062659    PMCid:2465130

Knubben, K., Reischies, F. M., Adli, M., Schlattmann, P., Bauer, M., & Dimeo, F. (2007). A randomised, controlled study on the effects of a short-term endurance training programme in patients with major depression. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 29-33.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.030130

Kramer, A. (1999). Walking Improves Mental Processing. Nature, July, 29, 400, 418-419.
PMid:2018397

Light, L. L. (1991). Memory and aging: our hypothesis in search of data. Ann Rev Psicol., 42, 333-376.
doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.002001

Lobo, A., Gómez Burgada, F., Escolar, V., & Seva Díaz, A. (1979). El mini-examen cognoscitivo en pacientes geriátricos. Folia Neuropsiquiátrica, XIV, 244-251.

Martin, M., & Kayser, N. (1998). The modular memory training for older adults: development and evaluation. Gerontol Geriatr, 31, 97-103.
doi:10.1007/s003910050024

McGuire, S., Klein, D., & Couper, D. (2005). Aging Education: A National Imperative. Educational Gerontology, 31, 443-461.
doi:10.1080/03601270590928170

O’Brein, M., Power, K., Sanford, S., Smith, K., & Wall, J. (1983). Temporal gait patterns in healthy young and elderly females. Physiotherapy Canada, 35, 323-326.
PMid:15781953

Podewils, L. J., Guallar, E., Kuller, L. H., Fried, L. P., Lopez, O. L., Carlson, M., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2005). Physical Activity, APDE Genotype, and Dementia Risk: Findings from the cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. Am J. Epidemiol, 161, 639-651.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwi092
PMid:11148233

Ritchie, K., Ledésert, B., & Touchon, J. (2000). Subclinical cognitive impairment: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41, 61-65.
doi:10.1016/S0010-440X(00)80010-3

Ruipérez, I. (2000). Escalas de valoración en contextos geriátricos. En Fernández-Ballesteros, R., Ed. Gerontología Social (pp. 383-399). Madrid: Pirámide.
PMid:9193211

Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S. L. (1986b). Can decline in adult intellectual functioning be reserved?. Developmental Psychology, 22, 223-232.
doi:10.1037/0012-1649.22.2.223
PMid:2229865

Sonstroem, R. J. (1984). Exercise and self-esteem. Exercise and Sport Science Review, 12, 123-155.
doi:10.1249/00003677-198401000-00007
PMid:16514097

Sturman, M. T., Morris, M. C., Mendes de León, C. F., Bienios, J. L., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2005). Physical Activity, Cognitive Activity, and Cognitive Decline in a Biracial Community Population. Arch Neurol, 62, 1750-1754.
doi:10.1001/archneur.62.11.1750
PMid:14739544

Taub, E., Uswatte, G., King, D. K., Morris, D. M., Crago, J. E., & Chatterjee, A. (2006). A placebo controlled trial of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for upper extremity after stroke. Stroke, 37, 1045-1049.
doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000206463.66461.97
PMid:12902534

Tervo, S., Kivipelto, M., Hanninen, T., Vanhanen, M., Hallikainen, M., & Mannermaa, A. (2004). Incidence and risk factors for mild cognitive impairment: A population-based three-year follow-up study of cognitively healthy elderly subjects. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 17(3), 196-203.
doi:10.1159/000076356
PMid:4072714

Thomas, V. S., & Hageman, P. A. (2003). Can Neuromuscular Strength and Function in People With Dementia Be Rehabilitated Using Resistance-Exercise Training? Results From a Preliminary Intervention Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 58, 746-751.
PMid:1535198

Thorstensson, A., Oddson, L., & Carlson, H. (1985). Motor control of voluntary trunk movements in standing. Acta Physiological Scandanavica, 125, 309-321.
doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1985.tb07721.x
PMid:16291928

Verhaeghen, P., Marcoen, A., & Groosens, L. (1992). Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: a metaanalytic study. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 7 (2), 242-251.
doi:10.1037/0882-7974.7.2.242
PMid:16446021

Wang, J.Y.J., Zhou, D.H.D., Li, J., Zhang, M., Deng, J., Tang, M., Gao Li, J., Lian, Y., Chen, M. (2006). Leisure activity and risk of cognitive impairment: The Chongqing aging study. Neurology, 66, 911-913.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000192165.99963.2a

Weaver Cargin, J., Maruff, P., Collie, A., & Masters, C. (2006). Mild memory impairment in healthy older adults is distinct from normal aging. Brain and Cognition, 60, 146-155.
doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2005.10.004

Wendy, J. T., Thomas, J., & Bouchard, Jr. (2005). The structure of human intelligence: It is verbal, perceptual, and image rotation (VPR), not fluid and crystallized. Intelligence, 33, 393–416.
doi:10.1016/j.intell.2004.12.002

Weuve, J., Kang, J. H., Manson, J. E., Breteler, M. M. B., Ware, J. H., & Grodstein, F. (2004). Physical Activity, Including Walking, and Cognitive Function in Older Women. JAMA, 202, 1454-1461.
PMid:11485502

Wilson, B. (1987). Rehabilitation of memory. NY: The Guilford Press.
PMid:20750860    PMCid:2307189

Woollacott, M. H., Shumway-Cook, A., & Nashner, L. M. (1986). Aging and posture control: Changes in sensory organization and muscular coordination. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 23, 97-114.
doi:10.2190/VXN3-N3RT-54JB-X16X
PMid:12425704    PMCid:2916176

Yaffe, K., Barnes, D., Nevitt, M., Li-Yung, L., & Covinsky, K. (2001). A Prospective Study of Physical Activity and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women Who Walk. Arch Intern Med, 161, 1703-1708.
doi:10.1001/archinte.161.14.1703

--------------------------------------------------------------------












Palabras clave/key words


ageing; complaints of memory loss; motor activity and cognitive training; mobility; envejecimiento; pérdidas de memoria; actividad motora y entrenamiento cognitivo; movilidad.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License