Effects of a training program on stable vs unstable surfaces on postural stability. [Efectos de un programa de entrenamiento en superficies estables frente a superficies inestables en la estabilidad postural].

Alberto Encarnación-Martínez, Gemma María Gea-García



The training surface can modulate the body’s response to training stimuli. The purpose of the article was to determine the influence of two types of training programs on stable/unstable surfaces on postural stability. 20 physically active participants with no history of lower limb injuries were randomly assigned to 3 groups (Control, Unstable Training, Stable Training), and performed supervised training in 16 sessions. Dynamic postural stability and static stability were assessed and tests were performed at baseline after completion of the training and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the training process. The stable surface training group improved dynamic stability between the pre-test and the two first retention tests performed (p = .037, d = .780; p = .011, d = .989). The unstable training group significantly improved its dynamic stability level between the post-test and the retention test (2). The improvements found after the training session for the unstable training group do not mean an increase in stability higher than that obtained by the stable surface training group. The dynamic postural stability test seems more appropriate than the static tests for analyzing small changes related to the training of postural stability in healthy young people.


La superficie de entrenamiento podría modular la respuesta del cuerpo a los estímulos de entrenamiento. El propósito del artículo fue determinar la influencia de dos tipos de programa de entrenamiento sobre superficies diferentes, estables versus inestables sobre la estabilidad postural en personas jóvenes sanas. Participaron 20 sujetos físicamente activos sin antecedentes de lesiones de miembros inferiores, los cuales fueron asignados aleatoriamente a 3 grupos (control, entrenamiento inestable y entrenamiento estable). Realizaron un entrenamiento supervisado de 16 sesiones. Se evaluó la estabilidad postural dinámica y la estabilidad estática de los participantes a través de unas pruebas que se realizaron al inicio y después de la finalización del entrenamiento. Los mismos test de estabilidad se volvieron a pasar tras 1, 2 y 4 semanas después del proceso de entrenamiento. El grupo de entrenamiento en superficie estable mejoró la estabilidad dinámica entre la prueba previa y las dos primeras pruebas de retención realizadas (p = .037, d = .780; p = .011, d = .989). El grupo de entrenamiento en superficie inestable mejoró significativamente el nivel de estabilidad dinámica entre la prueba posterior y la prueba de retención (2). Las mejoras encontradas después de la sesión de entrenamiento para el grupo de entrenamiento en superficie inestable no significan un aumento de estabilidad mayor que el obtenido por el entrenamiento en superficie estable. La prueba dinámica de estabilidad postural parece más apropiada que las pruebas estáticas para analizar pequeños cambios relacionados con el entrenamiento de la estabilidad postural en jóvenes sanos.



Aydin, T.; Yildiz, Y.; Yildiz, C.; Atesalp, S., & Kalyon, T. A. (2002). Proprioception of the ankle: a comparison between female teenaged gymnasts and controls. Foot & Ankle International, 23, 123-129.

Baydal, J. M.; Barberá, R.; Soler, C.; Peydro, M. F.; Prat, J., y Barona, R. (2004). Determinación de los patrones de comportamiento postural en población sana española. Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española, 55, 260-269.

Behm, D.; & Colado, J. C. (2012). The effectiveness of resistance training using unstable surfaces and devices for rehabilitation. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(2), 226-241.

Bressel, E.; Yonker, J. C.; Kras, J., & Heath, E. M. (2007). Comparison of static and dynamic balance in female collegiate soccer, basketball, and gymnastics athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(1), 42-46.

Bruhn, S.; Kullmann, N., & Gollhofer, A. (2006). Combinatory effects of high-intensity-strength training and sensorimotor training on muscle strength. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(5), 401-406.

Brumagne, S.; Janssens, L.; Knapen, S.; Claeys, K., & Suuden-Johanson, E. (2008). Persons with recurrent low back pain exhibit a rigid postural control strategy. European Spine Journal, 17, 1177-1184.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Dail, T. K., & Christina, R. W. (2004). Distribution of practice and metacognition in learning and long-term retention of a discrete motor task. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(2), 148-155.

Davids, K.; Glazier, P.; Araujo, D., & Bartlet, R. (2003). Movement systems as dynamical systems: the role of functional variability and its implications for sports medicine. Sports Medicine, 33, 245-260.

Donath, L.; Roth, R.; Zahner, L., & Faude, O. (2012). Testing single and double limb standing balance performance: comparison of COP path length evaluation between two devices. Gait and Posture, 36(3), 439-443.

Emery, C. A. (2003) Is there a clinical standing balance measurement appropriate for use in sports medicine? A review of the literature. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 6, 492-504.

Frank, T. D.; Michelbrink, M.; Beckmann, H., & Schöllhorn, W. I. (2008). A quantitative dynamical systems approach to differential learning: self-organization principle and order parameter equations. Biological Cybernetics, 98(1), 19-31.

Granacher, U.; Gollhofer, A., & Kriemler, S. (2010). Effects of balance training on postural sway, leg extensor strength, and jumping height in adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(3), 245-251.

Granacher, U.; Wick, C.; Rueck, N.; Esposito, C.; Roth, R., & Zahner, L. (2011). Promoting balance and strength in the middle-aged workforce. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(1), 35-44.

Guillou, E.; Dupui, P., & Golomer, E. (2007). Dynamic balance sensory motor control and symmetrical or asymmetrical equilibrium training. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(2), 317-324.

Guskiewicz, K., & Perrin, D. H. (1996). Research and clinical applications of assessing balance. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 5, 45-63.

Hertel, J. (2002). Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(4), 364-375.

Holme, E.; Magnusson, S. P.; Becher, K.; Bieler, T.; Aagaard, P., & Kjaer, M. (1999). The effect of supervised rehabilitation on strength, postural sway, position sense and re-injury risk after acute ankle ligament sprain. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 9(2), 104-109.

Hrysomallis, C. (2011). Balance Ability and Athletic Performance. Sports Medicine, 41(3), 221-232.

Hrysomallis, C. (2007). Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk Sports Medicine, 37(6), 547-556.

Hupperets, M. D.; Verhagen, E. A., & Van Mechelen, W. (2009). Effect of sensorimotor training on morphological, neurophysiological and functional characteristics of the ankle: a critical review. Sports Medicine, 39(7), 591-605.

Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Krustrup, P., & Aagaard, P. (2011). The effect of recreational soccer training and running on postural balance in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(3), 521-530.

Kiers, H.; Brumagne, S.; Van Dieën, J.; Van der Wees, P., & Vanhees, L. (2012). Ankle proprioception is not targeted by exercises on an unstable surface. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, 1577-1585.

Kruger, T. H.; Coetsee, M. F., & Davies, S. (2004). The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on proprioception performance in first division rugby union players. Sports Medicine, 16, 33-36.

Lee, T. D., & Genovese, E. D. (1989). Distribution of practice in motor skill acquisition: different effects for discrete and continuous tasks. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60(1), 59-65.

Lephart, S. M.; Giraldo, J. L.; Borsa, P. A., & Fu, F. H. (1996). Knee joint proprioception: a comparison between female intercollegiate gymnasts and controls. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 4, 121-124.

McGuine, T. A.; Greene, J. J.; Best, T., & Leverson, G. (2000). Balance as a predictor of ankle injuries in high school basketball players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 10, 239-244.

McKeon, P. O., & Hertel, J. (2008). Systematic review of postural control and lateral ankle I instability, part II: is balance training clinically effective? Journal of Athletic Training, 43(3), 305-315.

Perrin, P.; Deviterne, D.; Hugel, F., & Perrot, C. (2002). Judo, better than dance, develops sensorimotors adaptabilities involved in balance control. Gait and Posture, 15, 187-194.

Powers, M. E.; Buckley, B. D.; Kaminski, T. W.; Hubbard, T. J., & Ortiz, C. (2004). Six weeks of strength and proprioception training does not affect muscle fatigue and static balance in functional ankle instability. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 13, 201-227.

Ricotti, L. (2011). Static and dynamic balance in young athletes. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(4), 616-628.

Riemann, B. L. (2002). Is there a link between chronic ankle instability and postural instability?. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(4), 386-393.

Ross, S. E.; Arnold, B. L.; Blackburn, J. T.; Brown, C. N., & Guskiewicz, K. M. (2007). Enhanced balance associated with coordination training with stochastic resonance stimulation in subjects with functional ankle instability: an experimental trial. Journal of Neuro Engineering and Rehabilitation, 4, 47-54.

Ross, S. E.; Guskiewicz, K. M., & Yu, B. (2005). Single-leg jump-landing stabilization times in subjects with functionally unstable ankles. Journal of Athletic Training, 40, 298-304.

Ruhe, A.; Fejer, R., & Walker, B. F. (2010). The test retest reliability of centre of pressure measures in bipedal static task conditions: A systematic review of the literature. Gait and Posture, 32(4), 436-445.

Schöllhorn, W. I.; Hegen, P., & Davids, K. (2012). The nonlinear nature of learning - A Differential Learning Approach. The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 5, (Suppl 1-M11), 100-112.

Verhagen, E.; Bobbert, M.; Inklaar, M.; Van Kalken, M.; Van der Beek, A.; Bouter, L., & Van Mechele, W. (2005). The effect of a balance training programme on centre of pressure excursion in one-leg stance. Clinical Biomechanics, 20(10), 1094-1100.

Vernadakis, N.; Gioftsidou, A.; Antoniou, P.; Ioannidis, D., & Giannousi, M. (2012). The impact of Nintendo Wii to physical education students' balance compared to the traditional approaches. Computers & Education, 59(2), 196-205.

Wikstrom, E. A.; Tillman, M. D.; Chmielewski, T. L.; Cauraugh, J. H.; Naugle, K. E., & Borsa, P. A. (2010). Dynamic postural control but not mechanical stability differs among those with and without chronic ankle instability. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 137-144.

Wikstrom, E. A.; Tillman, M. D.; Smith, A. N., & Borsa, P. A. (2005). A new force-plate technology measure of dynamic postural stability: the dynamic postural stability index. Journal of Athletic Training, 40, 305-309.

Woollacott, M. H., & Pei-Fang, T. (1997). Balance control during walking in the older adult: research and its implications. Physical therapy, 77(6), 646-660.

Palabras clave/key words

balance; healthy subjects; biomechanics; stability training; surface; equilibrio; sujetos sanos; biomecánica; entrenamiento de estabilidad; superficie.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF (English) PDF

------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License