Effects of a training program on stable vs unstable surfaces on postural stability. [Efectos de un programa de entrenamiento en superficies estables frente a superficies inestables en la estabilidad postural].

Alberto Encarnación-Martínez, Gemma María Gea-García

Resumen


Abstract

The training surface can modulate the body’s response to training stimuli. The purpose of the article was to determine the influence of two types of training programs on stable/unstable surfaces on postural stability. 20 physically active participants with no history of lower limb injuries were randomly assigned to 3 groups (Control, Unstable Training, Stable Training), and performed supervised training in 16 sessions. Dynamic postural stability and static stability were assessed and tests were performed at baseline after completion of the training and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the training process. The stable surface training group improved dynamic stability between the pre-test and the two first retention tests performed (p = .037, d = .780; p = .011, d = .989). The unstable training group significantly improved its dynamic stability level between the post-test and the retention test (2). The improvements found after the training session for the unstable training group do not mean an increase in stability higher than that obtained by the stable surface training group. The dynamic postural stability test seems more appropriate than the static tests for analyzing small changes related to the training of postural stability in healthy young people.

Resumen

La superficie de entrenamiento podría modular la respuesta del cuerpo a los estímulos de entrenamiento. El propósito del artículo fue determinar la influencia de dos tipos de programa de entrenamiento sobre superficies diferentes, estables versus inestables sobre la estabilidad postural en personas jóvenes sanas. Participaron 20 sujetos físicamente activos sin antecedentes de lesiones de miembros inferiores, los cuales fueron asignados aleatoriamente a 3 grupos (control, entrenamiento inestable y entrenamiento estable). Realizaron un entrenamiento supervisado de 16 sesiones. Se evaluó la estabilidad postural dinámica y la estabilidad estática de los participantes a través de unas pruebas que se realizaron al inicio y después de la finalización del entrenamiento. Los mismos test de estabilidad se volvieron a pasar tras 1, 2 y 4 semanas después del proceso de entrenamiento. El grupo de entrenamiento en superficie estable mejoró la estabilidad dinámica entre la prueba previa y las dos primeras pruebas de retención realizadas (p = .037, d = .780; p = .011, d = .989). El grupo de entrenamiento en superficie inestable mejoró significativamente el nivel de estabilidad dinámica entre la prueba posterior y la prueba de retención (2). Las mejoras encontradas después de la sesión de entrenamiento para el grupo de entrenamiento en superficie inestable no significan un aumento de estabilidad mayor que el obtenido por el entrenamiento en superficie estable. La prueba dinámica de estabilidad postural parece más apropiada que las pruebas estáticas para analizar pequeños cambios relacionados con el entrenamiento de la estabilidad postural en jóvenes sanos.

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2019.05804

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Palabras clave/key words


balance; healthy subjects; biomechanics; stability training; surface; equilibrio; sujetos sanos; biomecánica; entrenamiento de estabilidad; superficie.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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