Influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico durante el embarazo en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. (Influence of the fhysical aerobic exercise during pregnancy in the maternal haemoglobin and iron levels).

Ruben Barakat Carballo, James Robert Stirling

Resumen


Son bien conocidos los efectos beneficiosos que el ejercicio físico tiene sobre la salud en general, aunque no se cuenta con la misma información cuando se desarrolla durante el embarazo. La mayor incertidumbre es saber si pueden coexistir ambos procesos, ejercicio y embarazo, sin conflictos materno-fetales y sin resultados del embarazo alterados. Especialmente cuando día a día, son más las mujeres que desean continuar ejercitándose de alguna forma, durante su embarazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico moderado desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestres en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. Material y métodos: Se llevó acabo un estudio experimental que incluyó un total de 142 gestantes. Grupo casos: integrado por 72 mujeres. Grupo control: integrado por 70 mujeres. Los parámetros maternos estudiados fueron: niveles de hierro, nivel de hemoglobina previo al parto, edad gestacional, tipo de parto. Fetales: Peso de nacimiento, talla, perímetro craneal, test de Apgar (1´y 5´). Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas a nivel estadístico entre ambos grupos (p menor que 0,05), el grupo de casos (ejercicio) presento medias similares en los niveles de hemoglobina: 12.1 ± 0.8 y de hierro: 65.90 ± 7.1; que el grupo de control: hemoglobina: 12.3 ± 0.8 y hierro: 66.42 ± 8.4. El peso de nacimiento fue inferior en el grupo de casos dentro de valores normales (-142.1 grs.). Conclusión: El ejercicio aeróbico moderado desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo parece no alterar los niveles de hierro y hemoglobina maternos.

Palabras clave/key words: ejercicio fisico | embarazo | parametros hematologicos | physical exercise | pregnancy | hematologic indices

Abstract

They are very well-known the beneficial effects that the physical exercise has about the health in general, although it is not had the same information when it refers to a pro- cess of remarkable importance: the pregnancy. The biggest uncertainty is to know if both processes, exercise and pregnancy can coexist without maternal-foetal conflicts and without the pregnancy outcome are altered. Especially when day by day, they are more the women that want to continue training in some way, during their pregnancy. The aim of this investigation is to know the influence of the moderate aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimesters on haemoglobin and iron maternal levels. Materials and methods: An experimental design was used. It included a total of 142 pregnant. Cases Group: integrated by 72 women. Control Group: integrated by 70 women. The studied maternal parameters were: iron levels, haemoglobin level, gestational age, type of delivery. Foetal: birth weight, size, cranial perimeter, Apgar test (1´y 5´). Results: Results show not significant differences between both groups at statistical level (p menor que 0.05), cases group (exercise) present similar results related to haemoglobin levels: 12.1 ± 0.8 and iron: 65.90 ± 7.1 that the control group: haemoglobin: 12.3 ± 0.8 and iron: 66.42 ± 8.4. The birth weight was inferior in the case group inside normal values (-142.1grs.). Conclusion: The moderate and aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimester seems not to influence in maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2008.01102

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Palabras clave/key words


ejercicio fisico; embarazo; parametros hematologicos; physical exercise; pregnancy; hematologic indices

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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