¿Es compatible el máximo rendimiento deportivo con la consecución y mantenimiento de un estado saludable del deportista? (Is compatible the maximum sports performance of the athlete with the attainment and maintenance of a healthy condition?)

Oscar García García, José María Cancela Carral, Eloy Olveira Núñez, Rebeca Mariño Torrado

Resumen


El objetivo del presente trabajo es el de establecer una propuesta de cómo se ha caracterizado en la literatura especializada la relación que pueda existir entre la optimización del rendimiento deportivo y el mantenimiento del estado de salud del deportista. Para conseguir este objetivo se ha desarrollado una exhaustiva búsqueda de documentación bibliográfica que incluían las bases de datos más relevantes de nuestro campo: sportdiscus, pubmed, healthstar, medline, cesic-isoc, teseo, dited, psycinfo, ibecs, y networked digital library. De la combinatoria relacional producida, el número total de documentos encontrados ha sido de 791, reteniendo 115 para su posterior análisis. Los resultados han revelado que aspectos como el equilibrio articular y muscular, la prevención de lesiones, el dopaje y sus efectos nocivos, el control nutricional, dietético y ergogénico, y el control de la composición corporal, pueden ser, a priori, indicadores muy importantes de esta relación en deportistas activos. Por otro lado, indicadores como el proceso de desentrenamiento, la reinserción a la vida “normal”, o los planes de promoción para exdeportistas, pueden ser a priori, indicadores muy importantes de esta relación en deportistas ya retirados hace años. El análisis conjunto de estos indicadores podría ofrecer un importante dato sobre la relación que mantienen el rendimiento y la salud, tanto en la vida activa del deportista como una vez ya retirado.

Palabras clave: rendimiento deportivo; salud; doping; desentrenamiento; prevención de lesiones; sociología; equilibrio artromuscular.

 Abstract

The aim of this work is of establishing a proposal of how it has been characterized in the specializing literature the connection that could exist between the optimization of the sports performance and the maintenance of the athlete’s health condition. To achieve this aim it has developed an exhaustive search of bibliographical documentation which it was including the most relevant databases of our field: sportdiscus, pubmed, healthstar, medline, cesic-isoc, teseo, dited, psycinfo, ibecs, and networked digital library. Of the relational combinatorial analysis produced, the total number of documents found has been of 791, retaining 115 for their subsequent analysis. The results have revealed that aspects like the muscle and joint balance, the prevention of injuries, the doping and its harmful effects, the nutritional dietetic and ergogenic control, and the control of the corporal composition, can be, in a first moment, very important indicators of this relation in active athletes. On the other hand, indicators like the process of detraining, the rehabilitation to the ordinary life, or the plans of promotion for ex-athletes, can be a priori, very important indicators of this relation in athletes already retired years ago. The joint analysis of these indicators might offer important information on the connection that the performance and the health keep, as much in the athletes´ active life as once already retired.

Key words: sports performance; health, doping; detraining; prevention of injuries; sociology; muscle and joint balance.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2009.01403

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Palabras clave/key words


rendimiento deportivo; salud; doping; desentrenamiento; prevención de lesiones; sociología; equilibrio artromuscular; sports performance; health, doping; detraining; prevention of injuries; sociology; muscle and joint balance.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
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