Valoración del riesgo de lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior en jugadoras de fútbol amateur. [Risk assessment of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female amateur football players].

Alba Prieto-Valle, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento, Raquel Hernández-García


Escasos trabajos han valorado el riesgo de lesión del LCA en fútbol femenino mediante un enfoque multifactorial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir los déficits funcionales y las asimetrías manifestadas por jugadoras de fútbol en diferentes pruebas de valoración, con el fin de realizar un análisis integrador del riesgo de lesión desde diferentes perspectivas funcionales y mecánicas. En este estudio de caso participaron 17 jugadoras de fútbol femenino de categoría Primera Autonómica y Preferente Autonómica Femenina española, con rangos de edad de 14 a 23 años. Las pruebas realizadas fueron: OverHead Squat (OHS), Drop Vertical Jump Test (DVJ), Tuck Jump (TJ) y Triple Hop Test (TH). Se halló que todas las jugadoras presentaron mejores resultados para la pierna dominante, mostrando una media mayor de flexión lateral del tronco (TLFA) al aterrizar con la pierna izquierda (8,88±5,15 º) que al aterrizar con la derecha (7,05±5,40 º) en el DVJ unipodal. Además, se encontró que gran parte de las jugadoras (41,20%) presentaron riesgo medio de lesión en el OHS, así como un desplazamiento medio de las rodillas en sentido medial (valgo) en el aterrizaje bipodal del DVJ (-1,88 cm), mientras que la mayoría de ellas (65%) no mostraron asimetrías neuromusculares de miembro inferior. En conclusión, las jugadoras muestran principalmente déficits funcionales en la estabilidad central (CORE) y en la estabilidad de rodilla para resistir y transmitir fuerzas en acciones de alto riesgo para el LCA como los saltos-aterrizajes. Por tanto, estos déficits deberían ser abordados de forma integral con las futbolistas.


Few studies have assessed ACL injury risk in women's football using a multifactorial approach. The aim of the present study was to describe the functional deficits and asymmetries manifested by female football players in different tests, in order to perform an integrative analysis of injury risk from different functional and mechanical perspectives. This case study involved 17 female football players from the Spanish Leagues of “Primera Autonómica” and “Preferente Autonómica Femenina”, aged from 14 to 23 years old. The tests applied were: OverHead Squat (OHS), Drop Vertical Jump Test (DVJ), Tuck Jump (TJ) and Triple Hop Test (TH). It was found that all players presented better results for the dominant leg, showing a higher mean lateral trunk flexion (TLFA) when landing with the left leg (8.88±5.15º) than when landing with the right leg (7.05±5.40º) in the unipodal DVJ. Furthermore, it was found that a large proportion of the players (41.20%) presented a medium risk of injury in the OHS, as well as a mean medial knee displacement (valgus) in the bipodal DVJ landing (-1.88 cm), while most of them (65%) did not show neuromuscular asymmetries of the lower limb. In conclusion, the players mainly show functional deficits in core stability (CORE) and knee stability to resist and transmit forces in high-risk actions for the ACL such as jump-landing tasks. Therefore, these deficits should be addressed comprehensively with female players.


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Palabras clave/key words

ligamento cruzado anterior; test de salto; fútbol femenino; test funcional; anterior cruciate ligament; jump test; female soccer; functional test.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

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