Influencia epigenómica de la actividad / inactividad física en el origen de la Diabetes mellitus tipo 2. (Epigenomic influence of the physical activity/inactivity in the origin of type 2 diabetes).

José Luis Márquez Andrade, Luis Antonio Salazar Navarrete

Resumen


Contrariamente al modelo centrado en las mutaciones, el cual asume que alteraciones en la función son consecuencia de mutaciones somáticas o heredadas en la secuencia del DNA, el modelo epigenético implica una carencia de regulación de uno o más genes. Un componente crítico del epigenoma son los patrones de distribución de las citosinas metiladas en secuencias de dinucleótidos CpG. Tal metilación marca los genes para su inactivación al interferir con la unión de factores de transcripción sensibles a DNA metilado o bien al reclutar proteínas que agrupan complejos correpresores y deacetilasas de histonas en torno a la cromatina. Estas marcas epigenéticas son propagadas luego mitótica y en algunos casos meióticamente, resultando en una herencia estable de estados regulatorios. Hoy se sabe que la dieta u otros factores ambientales son un punto de control para la regulación de la expresión génica y que durante periodos críticos de desarrollo, la cromatina sería particularmente sensible a modificaciones epigenómicas. De esta manera una explicación epigenómica del origen fetal de las enfermedades crónicas del adulto parece razonable. La presente revisión explica cómo la actividad/inactividad física de la madre o de la progenie en etapas tempranas, puede predisponer a Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en la vida adulta a través de este mecanismo.

Palabras clave: diabetes; epigenética; inactividad física.

Abstract

Contrary to the model centered in the mutations, which assumes that alterations in the function are consequence of somatic or inherited mutations in the sequence of the DNA, the epigenetic model implies dysregulation of one or more genes. A critical component of epigenome is its distribution patterns of the methylated cytosines in CpG sequences. This methylation marks to genes for their inactivation interfering with the union of methylated DNA-sensible transcription factors or recruiting proteins that group corepressor complexes and histone deacetylases around of chromatin. These epigenetic marks are propagated soon mitotic and in some cases meioticaly, result in a stable inheritance of regulatory states. Today it is known that diet or other environmental factors are a control point for the regulation of the gene expression and that during critical periods of development, the chromatin would be particularly sensible to epigenomics modifications. This way, an epigenomic explanation of the fetal origin of adult´s chronic diseases seems reasonable. The present review explains how physical activity/inactivity of the mother or the lineage in early stages can ready to Diabetes mellitus type 2 in the adult life through this mechanism.

Key words: diabetes; epigenetic; physical inactivity.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2009.01601

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Palabras clave/key words


diabetes; epigenética; inactividad física; epigenetic; physical inactivity.

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