Valoración de la disposición sagital del raquis en gimnastas especialistas en trampolín. (Assessment of the sagittal plane of the spine in trampoline gymnasts).

Pilar Sainz de Baranda, Fernando Santonja, María Rodríguez-Iniesta

Resumen


Se valoró la disposición sagital de la columna vertebral en gimnastas especialistas en la modalidad de trampolín. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en el que participaron 69 gimnastas de trampolín (35 mujeres y 34 varones) con una edad media de 14.97 + 4.77 años, y de 6.61+4 años de entrenamiento. La valoración se realizó en tres posiciones: bipedestación relajada, sedentación relajada y flexión máxima del tronco. En todas las posiciones se diferenció la curva dorsal y la lumbar. Para la cuantificación de los grados se utilizó un inclinómetro ISOMED Unilevel-95. En bipedestación la cifosis dorsal media fue 44.96º+8.23º, la lordosis lumbar fue de 36.25º+10.1º. En máxima flexión del tronco desde la bipedestación posición test dedos suelo (FMT-DDS) los grados de la curvatura dorsal y lumbar fueron de 51.55º+11º y 29.29º+7.89º. En máxima flexión del tronco desde la sedentación test dedos planta (FMT-DDP) los grados de la curvatura dorsal y lumbar fueron de 57.94º+15º y 27.72º+7.51º. En sedentación relajada los grados de la curvatura dorsal y lumbar fueron de 50.28º+10º y 17.48º+9.6º respectivamente. Los valores medios del plano sagital de los gimnastas especialistas en trampolín muestran en bipedestación valores de hipercifosis para la curva dorsal, con una lordosis lumbar normal. En la flexión máxima del tronco se observan valores normales para la cifosis dorsal y valores hipercifóticos para la curva lumbar. En sedentación se observan valores hipercifóticos tanto en la curva dorsal como en la lumbar. Los gimnastas presentan tendencia a una mayor cifosis dorsal en bipedestación y en flexión de tronco. Las gimnastas presentan tendencia a una mayor lordosis en bipedestación y menor cifosis lumbar en flexióny sedentación.

Palabras clave: plano sagital; cifosis torácica; lordosis lumbar; gimnastas de trampolín.

Abstract

The sagittal plane of the spine was measured in trampoline gymnasts. In this cross-sectional study, 69 club-level trampoline gymnasts (35 females and 34 males) participated. They had a mean age of 14.97+4.77 years and had participated in this sport for 6.61+4 years. The sagittal plane was measured in three positions: standing, seated, and maximal trunk flexion. In all positions the thoracic and lumbar curvature angular values were measured using an ISOMED Unilevel-95 inclinometer. Average standing thoracic kyphosis was 44.96º+8.23º, and average standing lumbar lordosis was 36.25º+10.1º. In standing forward flexion, the thoracic and lumbar curvatures measured 51.55º+11º and 29.29º+7.89º. In seated forward flexion, the measurements for the thoracic and lumbar spines were 57.94º+15º and 27.72º+7.51º. In slumped sitting, the measurements for the thoracic and lumbar spines were 50.28º+10º and 17.48º+9.6º, respectively. The average values of the sagittal plane in these trampoline gymnasts demonstrate hyperkyphosis for the thoracic curvature and normal lordosis for the lumbar curvature when standing. For maximal trunk flexion normal values were found in the thoracic curvature and hyperkyphotic values were found in the lumbar curvature. For seated positions hyperkyphotic values were found in the thoracic and lumbar curvatures. Male gymnasts tend to have more dorsal kyphosis in standing and maximal trunk flexion. The female gymnasts tend to have greater lordosis in standing and lesser lumbar kyphosis in trunk flexion and in seated position.

Key words: sagittal plain; curvatures; thoracic kyphosis; lumbar lordosis; trampoline gymnasts.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2009.01602

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Palabras clave/key words


plano sagital; cifosis torácica; lordosis lumbar; gimnastas de trampolín; sagittal plain; curvatures; thoracic kyphosis; lumbar lordosis; trampoline gymnasts.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
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