Efectos del envejecimiento en las capacidades físicas: implicaciones en las recomendaciones de ejercicio físico en personas mayores. (Effects of aging on physical fitness: implications in the recommendations of physical activity for older adults).

Ana Carbonell Baeza, Virginia A. Aparicio García- Molina, Manuel Delgado Fernández

Resumen


El envejecimiento produce una involución de las capacidades físicas que origina un deterioro del estado físico y una reducción de la funcionalidad personal. Conforme avanza la edad se produce una pérdida de fuerza, un descenso de la capacidad aeróbica y una reducción progresiva no lineal y específica por articulación y movimiento articular de la flexibilidad. Además, los desórdenes de equilibrio son frecuentes en las personas mayores, por lo que el trabajo de flexibilidad y equilibrio, secundario en personas adultas, cobra especial protagonismo en las personas mayores. Asociada a la edad se producen modificaciones sustanciales de la composición corporal, con una disminución de la masa libre de grasa, que condiciona un descenso del gasto metabólico basal y un incremento de la masa grasa. La práctica de actividad física ha demostrado ser una herramienta eficaz para atenuar o retardar el envejecimiento, pero sólo si dicho ejercicio es practicado de forma regular y con la intensidad adecuada, contribuirá a mejorar la capacidad funcional global del organismo. Las diferentes recomendaciones de actividad física para personas mayores publicadas hasta la fecha, determinan dichos criterios mínimos de volumen e intensidad, por lo que se deben tener presentes a la hora de realizar una prescripción de ejercicio físico a una persona mayor.

Palabras clave: envejecimiento; personas mayores; recomendaciones; actividad física.


Abstract

Aging process is associated with progressive declines in physical fitness and functionality. Across age, there is a lost of strength, aerobic capacity (Vo2max) and a progressive but not linear decreasing of specific joint mobility. Furthermore, balance disorders are common in older people. In addition, the flexibility and balance training, which is secondary in adult people, it is of special relevance in old people. Age-related changes occur in body composition: fat free mass decreases and it determines lower energy expenditure and consequent increase in fat mass. Physical activity has showed to be an useful tool for decelerating the aging process; however, benefits only occur when the physical activity is practiced at the appropriate volume and intensity. Different recommendations for frequency, intensity and duration of physical exercise have been published. The current recommendations for elderly people, determine the minimal criteria for volume and intensity, and they must be taken into consideration when prescribing physical exercise in old people.

Key words: aging process; old people; recommendations; physical activity.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2009.01701

Texto completo en PDF

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Referencias/references

Alfonzo-González, G.; Doucet, E.; Bouchard, C., & Tremblay, A. (2006). Greater than predicted decrease in resting energy expenditure with age: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 18-24.
doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602262
PMid:16151460

American College of Sports Medicine. (1990). American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22, 265-74.
PMid:2355825

American College of Sports Medicine. (1998). American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 975-91.
doi:10.1097/00005768-199806000-00032

American Geriatrics Society. (2001). Exercise prescription for older adults with osteoarthritis pain: consensus practice recommendations. A supplement to the AGS Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of chronic pain in older adults. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 49, 808-823.
doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.00496.x
PMid:11480416

Amiridis, I.; Hatzitaki, V., & Arabatzi, F. (2003). Age-induced modifications of static postural control in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 350, 137-140.
doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00878-4

Andreyeva, T.; Michaud, P. C., & Soest, A. (2007). Obesity and health in Europeans aged 50 years and older. Public Health, 121, 497-509.
doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2006.11.016
PMid:17544467

Araujo, C. (2008). Flexibility Assessment: Normative Values for Flexitest from 5 to 91 Years of Age. Arquives Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 90(4), 257-263.
PMid:18516386

Araujo, A.; Travison, T.; Bhasin, S.; Esche, G.; Williams, R. E.; Clark, R. V., & McKinlay, J. B. (2008). Association between testosterone and estradiol and age-related decline in physical function in a diverse sample of men. Journal of American Geriatric Society,56, 2000–2008.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01965.x
PMid:19016935    PMCid:2787197

Baloh, R.; Ying, S., & Jacobson, K. (2003). A longitudinal study of gait and balance dysfunction in normal older people. Archives of Neurology, 60, 835-839.
doi:10.1001/archneur.60.6.835
PMid:12810488

Barnes, C. J.; Van Steyn, S. J., & Fischer, R. A. (2001). The effects of age, sex, and shoulder dominance on range of motion of the shoulder. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 10, 242-246.
doi:10.1067/mse.2001.115270
PMid:11408905

Begg, R. K., & Sparrow, W. A. (2006). Ageing effects on knee and ankle joint angles at key events and phases of the gait cycle. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 30 (6), 382-389.
doi:10.1080/03091900500445353

Beliaeff, S.; Bouchard, D.; Hautier, C.; Brochu, M., & Dionne, I. J. (2008). Association between muscle mass and isometric muscle strength in well-functioning older men and women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 16, 484-493.
PMid:19033607

Blair, S.N.; LaMonte, M.J., & Nichaman, M.Z. (2004). The evolution of Physical Activity Recommendations: How much is enough?. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, S913-S920.
PMid:15113739

Castillo, M. J.; Ortega, F., y Ruiz, J. (2005). Mejora de la forma física como terapia antienvejecimiento. Medicina Clinica, 124,146-155.
doi:10.1157/13071011

Castillo-Garzón, M. J.; Ruiz, J. R.; Ortega, F. B., & Gutiérrez, A. (2006). Anti-aging therapy through fitness enhancement. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 1(3), 213-220.
doi:10.2147/ciia.2006.1.3.213

Chen, R.; Lin, S. Q.; Lin, X.; Chen, Y.; Yang, Q. H.; Zhou, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2008). Effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi, 43(1), 36-40.
PMid:18366931

Coin, A.; Sergi, G.; Minicuci, N.; Giannini, S.; Barbiero, E.; Manzato, E.; Pedrazzoni, M.; Minisola, S.; Rossini, M.; Del Puente, A.; Zamboni, M.; Inelmen, E. M., & Enzi, G. (2008). Fat-free mass and fat mass reference values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a 20-80 year-old Italian population. Clinical Nutrition, 27(1), 87-94.
doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2007.10.008
PMid:18206273

Demura, S.; Kitabayashi, T. & Aoki, H. (2008). Body-sway characteristics during a static upright posture in the elderly. Geriatrics and Gerontology International,8 (3), 188-97.
doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2008.00469.x

Doriot, N., & Wang, X. (2006). Effects of age and gender on maximum voluntary range of motion of the upper body joints. Ergonomics, 49 (3), 269-281.
doi:10.1080/00140130500489873
PMid:16540439

El Haber, N.; Erbas, B.; Hill, K., & Wark, J. (2008). Relationship between age and measures of balance, strength and gait: linear and non-linear analyses. Clinical Science, 114, 719–727.
doi:10.1042/CS20070301
PMid:18092948

Eskurza, I.; Donato, A. J.; Moreau, K. L.; Seals, D. R., & Tanaka, H. (2002). Changes in maximal aerobic capacity with age in endurance-trained women: 7-yr follow-up. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92, 2303-2308.
PMid:12015340

Fleg, J. L.; Morrell, C. H.; Bos, A. G.; Brant, L. J.; Talbot, L. A.; Wright, J. G., & Lakatta, E. G. (2005). Accelerated longitudinal decline of aerobic capacity in healthy older adults. Circulation, 112, 674-682.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.545459
PMid:16043637

Forrest, K. Y.; Zmuda, J., & Cauley, J. (2005). Patterns and determinants of muscle strength change with aging in older men. The Aging Male, 8(3/4), 151-156.
doi:10.1080/13685530500137840
PMid:16390738

Forrest, K. Y; Zmuda, J., & Cauley, J. (2007). Patterns and correlates of muscle strength loss in older women. Gerontology, 53, 140-147.
doi:10.1159/000097979
PMid:17167267

Gale, C. R.; Martyn, C. N.; Cooper, C., & Sayer, A. A. (2007). Grip strength, body composition, and mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, 228-235.
doi:10.1093/ije/dyl224
PMid:17056604

Groessl, E. J.; Kaplan, R. M.; Rejeski, W. J.; Katula, J. A.; King, A. C.; Frierson, G.; Glynn, N. W.; Hsu, F. C.; Walkup, M., & Pahor, M. (2007). Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults at Risk for Disability. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(3), 214-8.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.031
PMid:17826582    PMCid:1995005

Guallar-Castillón, P.; Sagardui-Villamor, J.; Banegas, J. R.; Graciani, A.; Fornés, N. S.; López García, E., & Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2007). Waist circumference as a predictor of disability among older adults. Obesity, 15 (1), 233-244.
doi:10.1038/oby.2007.532
PMid:17228052

Haskell, W. L.; Lee, I. M.; Pate, R.R.; Powell, K. E.; Blair, S. N.; Franklin, B. A.; Macera, C. A.; Heath, G. W.; Thompson, P.D., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1423 - 1434.
doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616b27

Hawkins, S. A., & Wisswell, R. A. (2003). Oxygen consumption decline with aging implications for exercise training. Sports Medicine, 33(12), 877-888.
doi:10.2165/00007256-200333120-00002
PMid:12974656

Hollman, J.; Kovash, F.; Kubik, J. J., & Linbo, R. A. (2007). Age-related differences in spatiotemporal markers of gait stability during dual task walking. Gait and Posture, 26, 113-119.
doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.08.005

Hughes, V. A.; Frontera, W. R.; Roubenoff, R.; Evans, W. J., & Singh, M. A. (2002). Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: role of body weight change and physical activity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,76 (2), 473-81.
PMid:12145025

Jansen, C. W.; Niebuhr, B. R.; Coussirat, D. J.; Hawthorne, D.; Moreno, L., & Phillip, M. (2008). Hand force of men and women over 65 years of age as measured by maximum pinch and grip force. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity,16(1), 24-41.
PMid:18212392

Koster, A.; Leitzmann, M. F.; Schatzkin, A.; Mouw, T.; Adams, K. F.; Van Eijk, J. T.; Hollenbeck, A. R., & Harris, T. B. (2008). Waist circumference and mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167 (12), 1465-1475.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwn079
PMid:18417494

Krems, C.; Luhrmann, P. M.; Strassburg, A.; Hartmann, B., & Neuhauser-Berthold, M. (2005). Lower resting metabolic rate in the elderly may not be entirely due to changes in body composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(2), 55-62.
doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602066
PMid:15494736

Kyle, U. G.; Melzer, K.; Kayser, B.; Picard-Kossovsky, M.; Gremion, G., & Pichard, C. (2006). Eight-year longitudinal changes in body composition in healthy Swiss adults. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 25 (6), 493-501.
PMid:17229896

Kyle, U. G.; Morabia, A.; Schutz, Y., & Pichard, C. (2004). Sedentarism affects body fat mass index and fat-free mass index in adults aged 18 to 98 years. Nutrition, 20, 255-260.
doi:10.1016/j.nut.2003.11.019
PMid:14990265

Lauretani, F.; Russo, C. R.; Bandinelli, S.; Bartali, B.; Cavazzini, C.; Di Iorio, A.; Corsi, A. M.; Rantanen, T.; Guralnik, J. M., & Ferrucci, L. (2003). Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95, 1851-1860.
PMid:14555665

Madhavan, S., & Shields, R. (2005). Influence of age on dynamic position sense: evidence using a sequential movement task. Experimental Brain Research, 164, 18-28.
doi:10.1007/s00221-004-2208-3
PMid:15776224

Mazzeo, R. S., & Tanaka, H. (2001). Exercise prescription for the elderly: current recommendations. Sports Medicine, 31(11), 809-818.
doi:10.2165/00007256-200131110-00003
PMid:11583105

Melzer, I.; Benjuya, N., & Kaplanski, J. (2004). Postural stability in the elderly: a comparison between fallers and non-fallers. Age and Ageing, 33, 602-607.
doi:10.1093/ageing/afh218
PMid:15501837

Nelson, M. E.; Rejeski, W. J.; Blair, S. N.; Duncan, P. W.; Judge, J. O.; King, A. C.; Macera, C. A., & Castaneda-Sceppa, C. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 1094-1105.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185650
PMid:17671236

Perissinotto, E.; Pisent, C.; Sergi, G.; Grigoletto, F., & ILSA Working Group (Italian Longitudinal Study on Ageing). (2002). Anthropometric measurements in the elderly: age and gender differences. British Journal of Nutrition, 87 (2), 177-86.
doi:10.1079/BJN2001487
PMid:11895170

Pimentel, A. E.; Gentile, C. L.; Tanaka, H.; Seals. D. R., & Gates, P. E. (2003). Greater rate of decline in maximal aerobic capacity with age in endurance-trained than in sedentary men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 2406-2413.
PMid:12533496

Raguso, C. A.; Kyle, U.; Kossovsky, M. P.; Roynette, C.; Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; Hans, D.; Genton, L., & Pichard, C. (2006). A 3-year longitudinal study on body composition changes in the elderly: role of physical exercise. Clinical Nutrition,25 (4), 573-80.
doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.10.013
PMid:16330136

Rossi, A.; Fantin, F.; Di Francesco, V.; Guariento, S.; Giuliano, K.; Fontana, G.; Micciolo, R.; Solerte, S. B.; Bosello, O., & Zamboni, M. (2008). Body composition and pulmonary function in the elderly: a 7-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Obesity, 32(9), 1423-1430.
doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.103
PMid:18645577

Ruiz, J.; Sui, X.; Lobelo, F.; Morrow, J.; Allen W.; Jackson, J. A.; Sjöström, M., & Blair, S. (2008). Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 337- 439.
PMid:11292147

Samson, M. M.; Crowe, A.; De Vreede, P. L.; Dessens, J. A.; Duursma, S. A., & Verhaar, H. J. (2001). Differences in gait parameters at a preferred walking speed in healthy subjects due to age, height and body weight. Aging, 13(1), 16-21.
PMid:18547686

Schlüssel, M. M.; Dos Anjos, L. A.; De Vasconcellos, M. T., & Kac, G. (2008). Reference values of handgrip dynamometry of healthy adults: a population-based study. Clinical Nutrition, 27(4), 601-7.
doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2008.04.004

Sforza, C.; Grassi, G.; Fragnito, N.; Turci, M., & Ferrario, V. F. (2002). Three-dimensional analysis of active head and cervical spine range of motion: effect of age in healthy male subjects. Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 611-614.
doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(02)00071-2
PMid:15047671

Stathokostas, L.; Jacob-Johnson, S.; Petrella, R. J., & Paterson, D. (2004). Longitudinal changes in aerobic power in older men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 97, 784-789.
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00447.2003
PMid:19026966

Sturnieks, D. L.; George, R., & Lord, S. R. (2008). Balance disorders in the elderly. Neurophysiologie Clinique, 38,467-478.
doi:10.1016/j.neucli.2008.09.001

Tanaka, H.; DeSouza, C.; Jones, P. P.; Stevenson, E. T.; Davy, K. P., & Seals, D. R. (1997). Greater rate of decline in maximal aerobic capacity with age in physically active vs. sedentary healthy women. Journal Applied of Physiology, 83(6),1946–1953.
PMid:16038855

Troke, M.; Moore, A. P.; Maillardet, F. J., & Cheek, E. (2005). A normative database of lumbar spine ranges of motion. Manual Therapy, 10, 198-206.
doi:10.1016/j.math.2004.10.004
PMid:18076278

Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B. H.; Kritchevsky, S. B.; Newman, A. B.; Nevitt, M.; Rubin, S. M.; Simonsick, E. M., & Harris, T. B. (2005). Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 60A(3), 324-333.
PMid:16497840

Weiss, E. P.; Spina, R. J.; Holloszy, J. O., & Ehsani, A. A. (2006). Gender differences in the decline in aerobic capacity and its physiological determinants during the later decades of life. Journal Applied of Physiology, 101, 938–944.
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01398.2005

Wilson, T.M, & Tanaka, H. (2000). Meta-analysis of the age-associated decline in maximal aerobic capacity in men: relation to training status. American Journal of Physiology, Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 278, 829-834.
PMid:18362231

Zhang, C.; Rexrode, K. M.; Van Dam, R. M.; Li, T. Y., & Hu, F. B. (2008). Abdominal obesity and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: sixteen years of follow-up in US women. Circulation, 117(13), 1658-1667.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.739714

----------------------------------------------------------------------


Palabras clave/key words


envejecimiento; personas mayores; recomendaciones; actividad física; aging; old people; recommendations; physical activity.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License