Influence of analysis focus and playing time on internal average and peak physical demands of professional male basketball players during competition. [Influencia del tiempo de juego en las demandas de carga interna pico y promedio en jugadores de baloncesto].

Enrique Alonso PérezChao, Alberto Lorenzo, Carlos Ribas, Ruben Portes, Anthony S Leicht, Miguel Angel Gómez



The main aim of this study was identifying the internal demands during competition including the impact of analysis method (i.e., average vs. peak demands). A secondary aim was to analyze the effects of playing time on the internal demands (average and peak). Methods: Twenty-two professional basketball players were monitored during 11 games. The following internal workload variables were recorded as averages (i.e., value per minute considering the entire game) and peak values (i.e., greatest 1-minute window): 1) average Heart Rate (HR), peak HR, average Respiration Rate (RR), peak RR, average Ventilation (VE), peak VE, average VO2 and peak VO2. Results: Significantly higher peak values (very large effect size) for all internal variables were evident when compared to their average demand. Concerning playing time comparison, significantly greater average values were reached for large playing time group (24.54 ± 3.23 min) for all variables compared to small playing time group (14.13 ± 3.78 min). However, non-significant differences were apparent between large playing time and small playing time group at their internal PD. Conclusions: Understanding internal load demands using averages values drastically underestimates the internal peak values of games. Thus, 14 minutes of total playing time (1.5 quarters; ~37% of a game) is enough to expose to the players to internal peak demands.

Keywords: heart rate; peak demands; internal load; worst case scenario; most demanding periods.


El principal objetivo del estudio fue comparar las demandas pico con las demandas promedio para diferentes variables de carga interna. El objetivo secundario fue analizar la influencia del tiempo de juego en las demandas de carga interna (promedio y pico). Métodos: Veintidós jugadores profesionales fueron monitorizados durante 11 partidos. Las siguientes variables de carga interna fueron registradas como promedio (e.g., valor por minuto considerando todo el partido) y valor pico (e.g., mayor valor alcanzado en una ventana de tiempo de un minuto): promedio frecuencia cardiaca (FC), FC pico, promedio de respiraciones (RR), RR pico, promedio de ventilaciones (VE), VE pico, promedio de VO2 and VO2 pico.  Resultados: Se encontraron valores significativamente más elevados para todas las variables pico comparado con los valores promedio. En relación con la comparación entre los jugadores en función del tiempo jugado, aquellos jugadores que acumularon mayor tiempo (24.54 ± 3.23 min) alcanzaron valores promedio significativamente más elevados para todas las variables analizadas comparado con el grupo que jugó menos minutos (14.13 ± 3.78 min). Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas para las demandas pico entre ambos grupos. Conclusiones: Analizando las demandas de carga interna utilizando promedio se subestimas aquellos valores pico. Además, disputar 14 minutos de juego (1.5 cuartos; 37% del partido), es suficiente para ser expuesto a las demandas pico de carga interna.

Palabras clave: frecuencia cardiaca; demandas pico; carga interna; peor escenario; escenarios se máxima exigencia.


Alonso, E; Miranda, N; Zhang, S; Sosa, C; Trapero, J; Lorenzo, J, & Lorenzo, A. (2020). Peak Match Demands in Young Basketball Players: Approach and Applications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2256.

Alonso Pérez-Chao, E; Gómez, M. Á; Lisboa, P; Trapero, J; Jiménez, S. L, & Lorenzo, A. (2022). Fluctuations in External Peak Demands across Quarters during Basketball Games. Frontiers in Psychology.

Alonso Perez-Chao, E; Lorenzo, A; Scanlan, A; Lisboa, P; Sosa, C, & Gómez, M. A. (2021). Higher Playing Times Accumulated Across Entire Games and Prior to Intense Passages Reduce the Peak Demands Reached by Elite, Junior, Male Basketball Players. American Journal of Men’s Health, “in press.”

Alonso Pérez-Chao, E; Ribas, C; Gómez, M. A; Portes, R; Jiménez, S. L, & Lorenzo, A. (2022). Should we train as we compete? Games might be the best scenario to reach the internal peak demands in professional basketball players. Medicine Dello Sport, 22(4).

Aoki, M; Ronda, L. T; Marcelino, P; Drago, G; Carling, C; Bradley, P. S, & Moreira, A. (2017). Monitoring Training Loads in Professional Basketball Players Engaged in a Periodized Training Program. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(2), 348–358.

Bogdány, T; Boros, S; Szemerszky, R, & Köteles, F. (2004). Validation of the Firstbeat TeamBelt and BodyGuard2 Systems. Magyar Sporttudományi Szemle, 5–12.

Castellano, J; Casamichana, D; Calleja-González, J; Román, J. S, & Ostojic, S. (2011). Reliability and Accuracy of 10 Hz GPS Devices for Short-Distance Exercise. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(1), 233–234.

Cunningham, D. J; Shearer, D. A; Carter, N; Drawer, S; Pollard, B; Bennett, M; Eager, R; Cook, C. J; Farrell, J; Russell, M, & Kilduff, L. P. (2018). Assessing Worst Case Scenarios in Movement Demands Derived from Global Positioning Systems During International Rugby Union Matches: Rolling Averages Versus Fixed Length Epochs. PLoS ONE, 13(4), 1–14.

Edwards, T; Spiteri, T; Piggott, B; Bonhotal, J; Haff, G. G, & Joyce, C. (2018). Monitoring and managing fatigue in basketball. Sports, 6(1), 1–14.

Firstbeat. (2017). Automated Fitness Level (VO2 max) Estimation with Heart Rate and Speed Data. © 2014 Firstbeat Technologies, 1–9.

Fox, J; Conte, D; Stanton, R; McLean, B, & Scanlan, A. (2020). The Application of Accelerometer-Derived Moving Averages to Quantify Peak Demands in Basketball. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1

Fox, J. L; Scanlan, A. T, & Stanton, R. (2017). A Review of Player Monitoring Approaches in Basketball: Current Trends and Future Directions. (Vol. 31, Issue 7, pp. 2021–2029). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31 (7), 2021-2029.

Fox, J; Salazar, H; García, F, & Scanlan, A. (2020). Peak External Intensity Decreases across Quarters during Basketball Games. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(2), 5–12.

García, F; Castellano, J; Reche, X, & Vázquez-Guerrero, J. (2021). Average Game Physical Demands and the Most Demanding Scenarios of Basketball Competition in Various Age Groups. Journal of Human Kinetics, 79(1), 165–174.

Gibson, C, & Noakes, T. D. (2004). Evidence for Complex System Integration and Dynamic Neural Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Recruitment During Exercise in Humans. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(6), 797–806.

Harriss, D. J, & Atkinson, G. (2014). Ethical Standards in Sport and Exercise Science Research: 2014 Update. International Journal Sports Medicine, 34, 1025–1029.

Hopkins, W; Marshall, S; Batterham, A, & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive Statistics for Studies in Sports Medicine and Exercise Science. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(1), 3–12.

Impellizzeri, F; Marcora, S, & Coutts, A. (2018). Internal and External Training Load: 15 Years On. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 14(2), 270–273.

Johnston, R. J; Watsford, M. L; Kelly, S. J; Pine, M. J, & Spurrs, R. W. (2014). Validity and Interunit Reliability of 10 hz and 15 hz GPS Units for Assessing Athlete Movement Demands. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(6), 1649–1655.

Nicolella, D; Torres-Ronda, L; Saylor, K, & Schelling, X. (2018). Validity and Reliability of an Accelerometer-based Player Tracking Device. PLoS ONE, 13(2), 1–13.

O’grady, C. J; Dalbo, V. J; Teramoto, M; Fox, J. L, & Scanlan, A. T. (2020). External Workload can be Anticipated During 5 vs. 5 Games-Based Drills in Basketball Players: An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), 2103.

Pino-Ortega, J; Rojas-Valverde, D; Gómez-Carmona, C. D; Bastida-Castillo, A; Hernández-Belmonte, A; García-Rubio, J; Nakamura, F. Y, & Ibáñez, S. J. (2019). Impact of Contextual Factors on External Load During a Congested-fixture Tournament in Elite U’18 Basketball Players. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Stojanović, E; Stojiljković, N; Scanlan, A. T; Dalbo, V. J; Berkelmans, D. M, & Milanović, Z. (2018). The Activity Demands and Physiological Responses Encountered During Basketball Match-Play: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine, 48(1), 111–135.

Vázquez-Guerrero, J; Ayala, F; Garcia, F, & Sampaio, J. (2020). The Most Demanding Scenarios of Play in Basketball Competition from Elite Under-18 Teams. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Vázquez-Guerrero, J, & Garcia, F. (2020). Is it Enough to use the Traditional Approach Based on Average Values for Basketball Physical Performance Analysis? European Journal of Sport Science, 0(0), 1–18.

Palabras clave/key words

heart rate; peak demands; internal load; worst case scenario; most demanding periods.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF (English) PDF

------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License