Efecto de dos programas de actividad física en el medio acuático con diferente impacto, sobre el índice de rigidez óseo y el nivel de actividad física en mujeres postmenopáusicas y osteopénicas de Toledo. (Effects of two aquatic physical activity programs with different impact, on stiffness index and physical activity level in postmenopausal and osteopenic women from Toledo).

Germán Díaz Ureña, María Carrasco Poyatos, Andrés Barriga Martín, Fernando Jiménez Díaz, Fernando Navarro Valdivielso

Resumen


La osteoporosis es la enfermedad crónica más prevalente en el mundo, especialmente en mujeres mayores de 65 años. En España afecta a un 35% de las mujeres mayores de 50 años. Existen dos componentes que afectan a la fortaleza del hueso: cantidad de hueso, medido como densidad de masa ósea (DMO), y calidad ósea, que se puede medir como índice de rigidez óseo (SI). El ejercicio recomendado para la mejora de la DMO es fundamentalmente un ejercicio de impacto o de fuerza. El trabajo en el medio acuático para la mejora de la DMO presenta controversias sobre su posible utilidad. Lo mismo sucede con el índice de rigidez óseo (SI). Un total de 60 mujeres (57,7 + 6,18 años) fueron divididas en 2 grupos. Cada grupo realizó un entrenamiento en el medio acuático diferente: a) grupo de natación (GN), realizó trabajo en la piscina profunda; b) grupo de impacto y resistencia (GIR), realizó trabajo en la piscina poco profunda. El entrenamiento fue realizado durante 6 meses, 2 días por semana con una duración de 45 minutos por sesión. Se tomaron medidas del SI con el densitómetro de ultrasonidos portátil (Lunar Achilles Express). El nivel de actividad física fue medido mediante acelerómetros uniaxiales (MTI actigraph). Se tomaron medidas antropométricas de las participantes. Al comienzo del estudio no hubo diferencias entre ambos grupos en ninguna de las variables medidas. Tampoco hubo diferencias al finalizar los 6 meses de entrenamiento. En la única variable que hubo diferencias tras los 6 meses de entrenamiento fue en el peso del GIR, (p menor que 0,05). Un programa de entrenamiento de 6 meses de duración con dos sesiones semanales no es suficiente para la mejora del SI, ni para modificar los hábitos de actividad física de las participantes.

Palabras claves: osteoporosis; ejercicio acuático; mujeres.

Abstract

Osteoporosis is the most prevalent chronic illness in the world, specially between elderly women above 65 years old. In Spain, 35% of elderly women above 50 years old suffer this illness. There are two components that affect bone strength: bone quantity, measured as bone mass density (BMD), and bone quality, which can be measured as bone stiffness index (SI). It is recommended impact and strength training to improve bone mineral density (BMD). Water-based exercise is unclear about the effect on BMD. The same goes for SI. Sixty elderly women (57,7 + 6,18 years old) were divided into two groups: a) swimming group (GN), trained in deep water; b) impact and resistance group (GIR) trained in shallow water. The training was carried out during 6 months, 2 days per week during 45 minutes per session. BMD were measured by an ultrasound portable densitometer device (Lunar Achilles Express). Physical activity level was assessed with an uniaxial accelerometer (MTI actigraph). Antropometric measured were also assessed. There were no significance differences between groups in any of the measured variables neither at the beginning nor after six months of training. A significant decrease was observed on weight (p less than0,05) in GIR after the 6-month protocol. A six months water-based exercise with two sessions per week seems to be not enough neither to increase BMD nor to change physical activity habits in postmenopausal women.

Key words: osteoporosis; water- based exercise; women.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2011.02002

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Palabras clave/key words


osteoporosis; ejercicio acuático; mujeres; osteoporosis; water- based exercise; women.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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