Demanda fisiológica en juegos reducidos de fútbol con diferente orientación del espacio. (Physiological demand in small-sided games on soccer with different orientation of space).

David Casamichana Gómez, Julen Castellano Paulis, Arturo González-Morán, Hugo García-Cueto, Juan García-López

Resumen


El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar si diferentes formatos de juegos reducidos (JR) producían variaciones en la demanda fisiológica de los jugadores. Para ello se escogió una situación con el espacio no orientado o de mantenimiento (JRM), y dos situaciones con espacio orientado: una con porteros y porterías reglamentarias (JRP), y otra con porterías pequeñas y sin porteros (JRpp). El resto de las variables se mantuvieron constantes: dimensiones del terreno de juego, número de jugadores y reglas. Además se estudió si existían diferencias para las diferentes demarcaciones ocupadas por los jugadores. 18 jugadores de fútbol aficionados pertenecientes al mismo equipo de categoría senior participaron en el estudio, completando 3 sesiones, con 3 JR en cada una de ellas (JRM, JRpp y JRP). Se cuantificó la frecuencia cardiaca media (Fcmed) obtenida en cada JR, la frecuencia cardiaca máxima (Fcmáx) y sus valores porcentuales. Además se estudió el porcentaje de tiempo en diferentes rangos de intensidad. Los resultados  indican que la modificación de la orientación del espacio en el juego afecta a la intensidad del mismo, obteniéndose valores de Fcmed (%) más elevadas en el JRM y en JRpp que en el JRP (p<0.05). Además, la demarcación ocupada por el jugador afecta a la respuesta fisiológica (p<0.05).  Los técnicos deportivos pueden manipular la orientación del espacio para modular la intensidad del JR, exigiendo en mayor o menor medida a determinadas demarcaciones en función del tipo de juego propuesto.

Palabras clave: fútbol; juegos reducidos; frecuencia cardiaca; entrenamiento aeróbico.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate whether different small-sided game (SSG) formats produced small variations in the physiological demand to the players. To do this we selected a situation with no oriented space or maintenance (JRM), and two space-oriented situations: one with goalkeepers and regulatory goals (JRP), and another with small goals and no goalkeepers (JRpp). All other variables remained constant: the pitch size, number of players and rules. Also, we studied whether there were differences for different demarcation occupied by the players. 18 amateur soccer players from the same team of senior category participated in the study, completing 3 sessions, reduced with 3 games each of them (JRM, JRpp and JRP). We quantified the average heart rate (HRmean) obtained in each SSG, maximum heart rate (HRmax) and percentage values. In addition, we studied the percentage of time in different ranges of intensity. The results indicate that changing the orientation of the space in the game affect the intensity, producing values of HRmean (%) higher in the JRM and JRpp than the JRP (p<0.05). In addition, the demarcation occupied by the player affects the physiological response (p<0.05). Sports trainers can manipulate the orientation of space to modulate the intensity of SSG, demanding a greater or lesser extent in certain players demarcations depending on the SSG proposed.

Key words: soccer; small-sided games; heart rate; aerobic training.

 doi:10.5232/ricyde2011.02306

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Palabras clave/key words


fútbol; juegos reducidos; frecuencia cardiaca; entrenamiento aeróbico; soccer; small-sided games; heart rate; aerobic training.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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