Clima motivacional percibido, necesidades psicológicas y motivación intrínseca como predictores del compromiso deportivo en adolescentes. (Perceived motivational climate, psychological needs and intrinsic motivation as predictors of sport commitment in adolescent athletes).

Bartolomé J. Almagro, Pedro Sáenz-López, David González-Cutre, Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia

Resumen


El estudio analizó la predicción del clima motivacional percibido, la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas y la motivación intrínseca sobre la adherencia a la práctica deportiva. Se utilizó una muestra de 580 deportistas con una edad media de 14.46 años. Se emplearon el Cuestionario del Clima Motivacional Percibido en el Deporte-2, la Escala de las Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas en el Ejercicio, el factor motivación intrínseca de la Escala de Motivación Deportiva y la Medida de la Intencionalidad para ser Físicamente Activo. Los resultados del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostraron que el clima motivacional que implica a la tarea predecía las tres necesidades psicológicas básicas y la intención de seguir siendo físicamente activo. Por otro lado, el clima motivacional que implica al ego predecía la necesidades de autonomía y de competencia, aunque con un peso de regresión en ambos casos mucho menor que como lo hacía el clima tarea. La satisfacción de las tres necesidades psicológicas básicas predijo positivamente la motivación intrínseca. Por su parte, la motivación intrínseca predijo la intención de ser físicamente activo en el futuro. Se discuten los resultados en relación a la importancia de fomentar un clima motivacional tarea en los practicantes para incrementar la adherencia a la práctica deportiva.

Palabras clave: clima motivacional; motivación; teoría de la autodeterminación; adherencia al deporte.

Abstract

The study analyzed the prediction of perceived motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation on adherence to sports. A sample of 580 athletes with a mean age of 14.46 years, participated in the study. The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, the intrinsic motivation factor of the Sport Motivation Scale and Intention of Being Physically Active were used. Structural equation modeling results showed that the task-involving motivational climate positively predicted the three basic psychological needs and the intention to practice physical activity into the future. Moreover, the ego-involving motivational climate predicted autonomy and competence needs, although with regression weight in both cases much less than it did the the task-involving motivational climate. The satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Besides, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of promoting a task-involving motivational climate to increase adherence to sport.

Key words: motivational climate; motivation; self-determination theory; adherence to sports.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2011.02501

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Palabras clave/key words


clima motivacional; motivación; teoría de la autodeterminación; adherencia al deporte; motivational climate; motivation; self-determination theory; adherence to sports.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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