Incidencia de la Teoría de Autodeterminación sobre la persistencia deportiva. (Incidence of Self-Determination Theory of sport persistence).

Tomás García-Calvo, Pedro Antonio Sánchez Miguel, Francisco Miguel Leo Marcos, David Sánchez Oliva, Diana Amado Alonso

Resumen


El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar la persistencia deportiva, utilizando como marco conceptual la Teoría de la Autodeterminación. Para conseguir este objetivo, se emplearon 958 jóvenes con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 16 años de edad, participantes de los deportes colectivos de fútbol, baloncesto, balonmano y voleibol. La persistencia deportiva se analizó mediante el registro de las licencias federativas una temporada después de la primera valoración, contrastándose mediante entrevista semiestructurada. La escala de motivación en el deporte (Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, Brière y Blais, 1995), y la escala de mediadores motivacionales (García Calvo, Sánchez Miguel, Leo, Sánchez Oliva y Gómez Corrales, 2010b) se utilizaron para conocer los niveles de autodeterminación y necesidades psicológicas básicas. El análisis de varianza demostró (p < .05) que los individuos con menores valores de desmotivación, tendían a persistir la práctica deportiva en mayor medida que los que presentaban niveles inferiores. Además, a través del análisis discriminante se muestran a las necesidades psicológicas básicas como predictores de la continuidad en el deporte. Para finalizar se exponen las limitaciones del estudio y futuras prospectivas de trabajo que permitan aumentar el conocimiento de los motivos y causas que provoca la persistencia en la práctica deportiva.

Palabras clave: persistencia deportiva; motivación, deporte escolar; deportes colectivos.

Abstract

This work aims to analyze sport persistence, using Self-Determination Theory as a conceptual framework. To achieve this purpose, we selected 958 young athletes, ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old, belonged to football, basketball, handball and volleyball team sports. The follow-up year study, sport persistence was measured through federative license and checked by semi structure interview. Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, Brière and Blais, 1995), and Motivational Mediators Scale (García Calvo, Sánchez Miguel, Leo, Sánchez Oliva and Gómez Corrales, 2010b) were used to know self-determination level and psychological basics needs. Analysis of variance showed (p < .05) that lower amotivation levels persistence more than individual with greater scores. Furthermore, through discriminant analysis we demonstrated that psychological needs emerged as predictors of persistence in the practice. Finally, we indicated limitations of the study and future prospective with the aim to enhance the knowledge about the reasons and motives that promote sport persistence.


Key words: sport persistence; motivation; scholar sport; team sports.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2011.02502

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Referencias/references

Deci, E. L., y Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Guillet, E.; Sarrazin, P.; Carpenter, P.; Troullioud, D., y Cury, F. (2002). Predicting persistence or withdrawal in female handballers with Social Exchange Theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 37, 92-104.
doi:10.1080/00207590143000243

Lonsdale, C.; Sabiston, C. M.; Raedeke, T. D.; Ha, A. S. C., y Sum, R. K. W. (2009). Self-determined motivation and students` physical activity during structured physical education lessons and free choice periods. Preventive Medicine, 48, 69-73.
doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.09.013
PMid:18996143

Mullan, E., y Markland, D. (1997). Variations in self-determination across the stages of change for exercise in adults. Motivation and Emotion, 21(4), 349-362.
doi:10.1023/A:1024436423492

Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A prospective study of participation in optional school physical education using a self-determination theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 444-453.
doi:10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.444

Núñez, J. L.; Martín-Albo, J.; Navarro, J. G., y González, V. M. (2006). Preliminary validation of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102, 919-930.
doi:10.2466/pms.102.3.919-930

Pelletier, L.; Fortier, M.; Vallerand, R., y Brière, N. (2001). Associations among perceived autonomy support, forms of self-regulation, and persistence: A prospective study. Motivation and Emotion, 25, 279-306.
doi:10.1023/A:1014805132406

Reinboth, M., y Duda, J. L. (2006). Perceived motivational climate, need satisfaction and indices of well-being in team sports: A longitudinal perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(3), 269-286.
doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.06.002

Ryan, R. M., y Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
PMid:11392867

Sallis, J. F. (2000). Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 1598-1600.
doi:10.1097/00005768-200009000-00012

Sarrazin, P.; Vallerand, R.; Guillet, E.; Pelletier, L., y Cury, F. (2002). Motivation and dropout in female handballers: A 21-month prospective study. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 395-418.
doi:10.1002/ejsp.98

Standage, M.; Duda, J. L., y Ntoumanis, N. (2003). A model of contextual motivation in physical education: Using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions. Journal of educational psychology, 95(1), 97-110.
doi:10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.97

Taylor, I.; Ntoumanis, N.; Standage, M., y Spray, C. (2010). Motivational predictors of physical education students’ effort, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity: A multilevel linear growth analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 99-120.
PMid:20167954

Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., y Ntoumanis, N. (2006). The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4), 393-404.
doi:10.1080/02640410500131670
PMid:16492603

Ulrich-French, S., y Smith, A. L. (2009). Social and motivational predictors of continued youth sport participation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 87-95.
doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.06.007

Vallerand, R. J.; Fortier, M. S., y Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high school drop out. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1161-1176.
doi:10.1037/0022-3514.72.5.1161
PMid:9150590

Vallerand, R. J., y Bissonnette, R. (1992). On the predictive effects of intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivational styles on behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60, 599-620.
doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x
---------------------------------------------------------------------


Palabras clave/key words


persistencia deportiva; motivación, deporte escolar; deportes colectivos; sport persistence; motivation; scholar sport; team sports.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License