¿Puede el ejercicio físico moderado durante el embarazo actuar como un factor de prevención de la Diabetes Gestacional? (Can moderate physical exercise during pregnancy act as a factor in preventing Gestational Diabetes?)

Yaiza Cordero Rodríguez, Mireia Peláez Puente, Marta De Miguel Abad, María Perales Santaella, Ruben Barakat Carballo

Resumen


El presente trabajo pretende conocer la eficacia de un programa de ejercicio físico moderado desarrollado durante todo el embarazo en la excesiva ganancia de peso materno y el desarrollo de la Diabetes Gestacional (DG). Se realizó un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, no apareado, no enmascarado mediante una colaboración entre el Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Centro de Salud de Torrelodones y la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 55 gestantes sin contraindicaciones obstétricas fueron estudiadas, (edad=32,9±3,9 años), todas ellas caucásicas, 25 en el grupo de tratamiento y 30 en el de control. Se desarrolló un programa de ejercicio físico (seco/agua) durante todo el embarazo con una frecuencia de tres sesiones semanales. Nuestros resultados muestran que grupo de tratamiento presentó una menor ganancia de peso materno que en el de control (12.820±3.682 gr y 14.780±3.427 gr respectivamente, p=0,03), los valores en el Test de O´Sullivan (sobrecarga oral de glucosa) fueron inferiores en el grupo de tratamiento que en el de control 102,9±17,7 gr/dL vs 125,6±30,8 gr/dL respectivamente, p=0,002). No se diagnosticó ningún caso de DG en el grupo de tratamiento mientras que en el grupo de control se diagnosticaron 2 casos. El ejercicio físico desarrollado durante el embarazo reduce la ganancia de peso materno, los valores del Test de O’Sullivan y actúa aparentemente como un factor de prevención de la DG.

Palabras clave: ejercicio; embarazo; ganancia de peso materno; diabetes gestacional.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to know the effectiveness of exercise of a moderate program developed during pregnancy in the excessive maternal weight gain and development of Gestational Diabetes (GD). We performed a clinical trial, randomized, unmatched, not masked by mean the collaboration between the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Health Center of Torrelodones (Madrid) and the Polytechnic University of Madrid. 55 pregnant women without obstetric contraindications were studied, (age= 32,9±3,9 years), all of them caucasian, 25 in the treatment group and 30 in the control group. A physical exercise program was developed  (land/water) three times per week during pregnancy. According to our resultats, treatment group showed a lower maternal weight gain than in the control group (12.820±3.682 g and 14.780 g ± 3.427 g respectively, p=0.03). The values in the O'Sullivan test are lower in the treatment group than in the control group (102,9±17,7 gr/dL vs 125,6±30,8 gr/dL respectively, p=0,002). Not diagnosed any cases of GD in the treatment group while the control group 2 cases were diagnosed. The exercise done during the pregnancy reduces maternal weight gain, values of O’Sullivan score and apparently acts as a preventive factor of the GD.

Key words: exercise; pregnancy; maternal weight gain; gestational diabetes.

doi:10.5232/ricyde2012.02701

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Palabras clave/key words


ejercicio; embarazo; ganancia de peso materno; diabetes gestacional; exercise; pregnancy; maternal weight gain; gestational diabetes.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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