Triathlon Transition Tests: Overview and Recommendations for Future Research.

Veronica Vleck, Francisco Bessone Alves

Resumen


Overview

Triathlon performance is influenced by a competitors’ discipline specific ability, across all three of its sub events, relative to who else is in the race field. Residual fatigue and or altered movement patterns, as a result of the preceding swim and cycle, may lead to a competitor completing the run in less than his/her optimal manner. This may then impact on his/her overall race result (Cala et al., 2009; Vleck et al., 2008). The shorter the race distance and the higher the exercise intensity that is required, the more important a good cycle-to-run transition (T2) is likely to be to the athlete’s overall placing (Millet and Vleck 2000, Vleck, Bürgi & Bentley, 2006; Vleck et al., 2008).
In this editorial, we consider (T2) to be “the period from the last kilometre of the cycle section through to the end of the first kilometre of the run.” We refer our readers to Millet and Vleck (2000)’s review of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory affects of the Olympic cycle to run transition on junior and Elite triathletes, and focus here on the currently available tests for “T2 ability.”


(Leer + PDF)


doi:10.5232/ricyde2011.024
------------------------------------------------
References/referencias

Bentley, D.J.; Millet, G.P.; Vleck, V.E., & McNaughton, L.R. (2002). Specific aspects of contemporary triathlon: implications for physiological analysis and performance. Sports Med 32 (6): 345-59.
doi:10.2165/00007256-200232060-00001
PMid:11980499

Bernard, T.; Vercruyssen, F.; Grego, F.; Hausswirth, C.; Lepers, R.; Vallier. J.M., et al. (2003). Effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 3 km running performance in well trained triathletes. Br J Sports Med 37:154-159.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.37.2.154
PMid:12663359    PMCid:1724616

Bonacci, J.; Blanch, P.; Chapman. A.R., & Vicenzino, B. (2010). Altered movement patterns but not muscle recruitment in moderately trained triathletes during running after cycling. J Sports Sci 28: 13:1477-1487.
doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.514279
PMid:20945251

Bonacci, J.; Green, D.; Saunders, P.U.; Franettovitch, M.; Blanch, P.; Vicenzino; B. (2011a). Plyometric training as an intervention to correct altered neuromotor control after cycling in triathletes: a preliminary randomised controlled trial. Phys Ther Sport 12: 15-21.
doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.10.005
PMid:21256445

Bonacci, J.; Saunders, P.U.; Alexander, M.; Blanch, P., & Vicenzino B (2011b). Neuromuscular control and running economy is preserved in elite international triathletes after cycling. Sports Biomech 10(1): 49-61.
doi:10.1080/14763141.2010.547593
PMid:21560752

Boussana, A.; Galy, O.; Hue, O.; Matecki, A.; Varray, A.; Ramonatxo, M., et al. (2003). The effects of prior cycling and a successive run on respiratory muscle performance in triathletes. Int J Sports Med 24: 63-70.
doi:10.1055/s-2003-37201
PMid:12582954

Cala, A.; Veiga, S.; Garcia, A., & Navarro, E (2009). Previous cycling does not affect running efficiency during a triathlon world cup competition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 49:152-158.
PMid:19528892

Chapman, A.R.; Vicenzino, B.; Blanch, P.; Dowlan, S., & Hodges, P.W. (2008). Does cycling effect motor coordination of the leg during running in elite triathletes? J Sci Med Sport 11: 371-380.
doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.008
PMid:17466592

Chapman, A.R.; Vicenzino, B.; Hodges, P.W.; Blanch, P.; Hahn, A.J., & Milner TE (2009). A protocol for measuring the direct effect of cycling on neuromuscular control of running in triathletes. J Sports Sci 27(7): 767-782.
doi:10.1080/02640410902859100
PMid:19437184

Chapman, A.R.; Hodges, P.W.; Briggs, A.M.; Stapley, P.J., & Vicenzino B (2010). Neuromuscular control and exercise-related leg pain in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exer 42, 233-243.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b07e91

De Vito, G.; Bernardi, M.; Sproviero, E., & Figura F (1995). Decrease of endurance performance during Olympic Triathlon. Int J Sports Med. 16(1):24-8.
doi:10.1055/s-2007-972958
PMid:7713626

Hue, O. (2003). Prediction of drafted-triathlon race time from submaximal laboratory testing in elite triathletes. Can J Appl Physiol 28(4): 547-60.
doi:10.1139/h03-042
PMid:12904633

Hue, O.; Le Gallais, D.; Boussana, A.; Chollet, D., & Préfaut C (1999) Ventilatory responses during experimental cycle-run transition in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: 1422-1428.
doi:10.1097/00005768-199910000-00010

Hue, O.; Galy, O.; Le Gallais, D., & Préfaut C (2001). Pulmonary responses during the cycle-run succession in elite and competitive triathletes. Can J Appl Physiol 26: 559-573.
doi:10.1139/h01-031
PMid:11842273

Hue, O.; Le Gallais, D., & Préfaut C (2001). Specific pulmonary responses during the cycle-run succession in triathletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 11: 355-361.
doi:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.110607.x
PMid:11782268

Millet, G.P. & Vleck VE (2000). Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training. Br J Sports Med 34: 384-390.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.34.5.384
PMid:11049151    PMCid:1756235

Millet, G.P.; Millet, G.Y.; Hofmann, M.D., & Candau RB (2000). Alterations in running economy and mechanics after maximal cycling in triathletes: influence of performance level. Int J Sports Med 21: 127-132.
doi:10.1055/s-2000-8866
PMid:10727074

Millet, G.P.; Millet, G.Y., & Candau, R.B. (2001). Duration and seriousness of running mechanics alterations after maximal cycling in triathletes. Influence of the performance level. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 41: 147-153.
PMid:11447354

Millet, G.P. & Bentley, D.J. (2004). The physiological responses to running after cycling in elite junior and senior triathletes. Int J Sports Med 25: 191-197.
doi:10.1055/s-2003-45259
PMid:15088243

Millet, G.P.; Vleck, V.E., & Bentley DJ (2009). Physiological adaptations to cycle and run training: lessons from triathletes. Sports Med 39(3): 179-206.
doi:10.2165/00007256-200939030-00002
PMid:19290675

Vleck, V.; Bürgi, A., & Bentley DJ. (2006). The consequences of swim, cycle and run performance on overall result in elite Olympic Distance triathlon. Int J Sports Med 27: 43-48.
doi:10.1055/s-2005-837502
PMid:16388441

Vleck, V.E.; Bentley, D.J.; Millet, G.P., & Bürgi A (2008). Pacing during an elite Olympic distance triathlon: Comparison between male and female competitors. J Sci Med Sport 11:424-432.
doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.01.006
PMid:17350889

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Palabras clave/key words


testing; triathlon; cycle to run transition; performance.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License