Aplicación de la dinamometría isocinética para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. [The use of isokinetic dynamometry to establish risk profiles of hamstring injury in professional football players].

Victor Moreno-Perez, David Barbado-Murillo, Casto Juan-Recio, Cesar M. Quesada-de-la-Gala, Francisco J. Vera-Garcia

Resumen


Las lesiones en la musculatura isquiosural son frecuentes en el fútbol profesional y han sido relacionadas con el desequilibrio entre la fuerza de los flexores y extensores de rodilla. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue comprobar si la ratio de fuerza máxima excéntrica de flexores/concéntrica de extensores (ratio Flexexc30/Extcon240) y el ángulo de rodilla donde la musculatura isquiosural alcanza su máximo momento de fuerza, son variables útiles para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. Veinte jugadores de un equipo de la Segunda División de la Liga de Fútbol Profesional realizaron bilateralmente un test isocinético de flexión excéntrica de rodilla a 30º/s y extensión concéntrica de rodilla a 240º/s durante la pretemporada. Tras calcular la ratio Flexexc30/Extcon240 y el ángulo de máximo momento de fuerza, se registraron las lesiones sufridas por los jugadores a lo largo de la temporada. Los resultados mostraron que dos de los cinco jugadores lesionados presentaron ratios Flexexc30/Extcon240 menores de 0.89, valor que ha sido utilizado previamente para determinar el desequilibrio entre la musculatura flexora y extensora de rodilla y el riesgo de lesión (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, y Ferret, 2008). Además, otros dos de los jugadores lesionados obtuvieron ratios entre 0.93 y 1.00. Por otro lado, no se encontraron diferencias en el ángulo de máximo momento de fuerza entre jugadores lesionados y no lesionados. Estos resultados indican que la ratio Flexexc30/Extcon240 puede ser un índice útil para determinar el riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales.

Abstract

Hamstring injuries are common in professional football and have been related to the imbalance between knee flexor and extensor strength. The aim of our study was to establish whether the flexor eccentric/extensor concentric strength ratio (Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio) and the knee angle where the peak torque of the hamstring musculature was found, are useful variables to establish risk profiles for hamstring injury in professional football players. Twenty players of a Second Division team of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional bilaterally performed an isokinetic test of eccentric knee flexion at 30º/s and concentric knee extension at 240º/s during the pre-season. The Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio and the knee angle of peak torque were calculated, and the players’ injuries were registered throughout the season. The results showed that two of the five injured players had Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratios lower than 0.89, value that has been previously used to determine the imbalance between knee flexor and extensor strength and the risk of injury (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, and Ferret, 2008). In addition, another two injured players obtained ratios between 0.93 and 1.00. On the other hand, no differences in the knee angle of peak torque between injured and non-injured players were found. These results indicate that the Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio may be a useful index to determine the risk of hamstring injury in professional football players.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03403

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Referencias/references


Bennell, K.; Wajswelner, H.; Lew, P.; Schall-Riaucour, A.; Leslie, S.; Plant, D., & Cirone, J. (1998). Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian Rule footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(4), 309-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.32.4.309 PMid:9865403 PMCid:PMC1756115

Brockett, C.L.; Morgan, D.L., & Proske, U. (2004). Predicting hamstring strain injury in elite athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(3), 379-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000117165.75832.05 PMid:15076778

Brughelli, M.; Cronin, J.; Mendiguchia, J.; Kinsella, D., & Nosaka, K. (2010). Contralateral leg deficits in kinetic and kinematic variables during running in Australian rules football players with previous hamstring injuries. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(9), 2539-2544 http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b603ef PMid:19996776

Croisier, J.L.; Forthomme, B.; Namurois, M.H.; Vanderthommen, M., & Crielaard, J.M. (2002). Hamstring muscle strain recurrence and strength performance disorders. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(2), 199-203 PMid:11912088

Croisier, J.L. (2004). Factors associated with recurrent hamstring injuries. Sports Medicine, 34(10), 681-695 http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434100-00005 PMid:15335244

Croisier, J.L.; Ganteaume, S.; Binet, J.; Genty, M., & Ferret, J.M. (2008). Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(8), 1469-1475 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546508316764 PMid:18448578

Dvorak, J., & Junge, A. (2000). Football injuries and physical symptoms. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(5), S3-9. PMid:11032101

Ekstrand, J.; Hägglund, M., & Waldén, M. (2011). Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(6), 1226-1232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546510395879 PMid:21335353

Gabbe, B.J.; Bennell, K.L., & Finch, C.F. (2006). Why are older Australian football players at greater risk of hamstring injury? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(4), 327-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.01.004 PMid:16678486

Greig, M., & Siegler, J. C. (2009). Soccer-specific fatigue and eccentric hamstrings muscle strength. Journal of Athletic Training, 44(2), 180-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.180 PMid:19295963 PMCid:PMC2657020

Jönhagen, S.; Németh, G., & Eriksson, E. (1994). Hamstring injuries in sprinters. The role of concentric and eccentric hamstring muscle strength and flexibility. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(2), 262-266 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/036354659402200218 PMid:8198197

Lehance, C.; Binet, J.; Bury, T., & Croisier, J. L. (2009). Muscular strength, functional performances and injury risk in professional and junior elite soccer players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(2), 243-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00780.x PMid:18384493

Orchard, J.W. (2001). Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for muscle strains in Australian football. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(3), 300-303. PMid:11394599

Petersen, J., & Hölmich, P. (2005). Evidence based prevention of hamstring injuries in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(6), 319-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.018549 PMid:15911599 PMCid:PMC1725237

Proske, U.; Morgan, D.L.; Brockett, C.L., & Percival, P. (2004). Identifying athletes at risk of hamstring strains and how to protect them. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 31(8), 546-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.04028.x PMid:15298549

Sherry, M.A., & Best, T.M. (2004). A comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs in the treatment of acute hamstring strains. The Journal of Orthopedic in Sports Physical Therapy, 34(3), 116-125. PMid:15089024

Small, K.; McNaughton, L.; Greig, M., & Lovell, R. (2009). Effect of timing of eccentric hamstring strengthening exercises during soccer training: implications for muscle fatigability. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(4), 1077-1083. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318194df5c PMid:19528859

Witvrouw, E.; Danneels, L.; Asselman, P.; D'Have, T., & Cambier, D. (2003). Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), 41-46. PMid:12531755

Woods, C.; Hawkins, R.D.; Maltby, S.; Hulse, M.; Thomas, A.; Hodson, A. (2004). The football association medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football- analysis of hamstring injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(1), 36-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2002.002352 PMid:14751943 PMCid:PMC1724733

Yeung, S.S.; Suen, A.M., & Yeung, E.W. (2009). A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(8), 589-594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.056283 PMid:19174411
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Palabras clave/key words


fútbol; lesión de isquiosurales; desequilibrio de fuerza; prevención; football; hamstring injury; strength imbalance; prevention.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License