Relaciones de la condición física y la composición corporal con la autopercepción de salud. [Relationship of physical fitness and body composition with self-rated health].

Carlos Alberto Becerra, Rafael Enrique Reigal, Antonio Hernández-Mendo, Ignacio Martín-Tamayo

Resumen


El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar las relaciones existentes entre diferentes variables de la condición física y el porcentaje de masa grasa con la percepción de salud. Los participantes en el estudio fueron 264 adolescentes de la ciudad de Málaga (España), en edades comprendidas entre los 14 y 16 años (M=15.05; DT=0.78). Se midió el porcentaje de masa grasa corporal, mediante bioimpedancia eléctrica, y el consumo de oxígeno máximo, de forma indirecta, a través del test de Course Navette. Además, se estimó el tiempo en recorrer 50 metros lisos y la distancia alcanzada mediante salto horizontal. Por otro lado, se utilizó el General Health Questionaire (GHQ-28), para evaluar la percepción de salud. Los análisis de correlación y regresión lineal efectuados pusieron de manifiesto relaciones entre las variables de condición física y el porcentaje de masa grasa con las medidas del GHQ-28, salvo en el factor depresión grave. En concreto, el consumo máximo de oxígeno predijo negativamente los factores síntomas somáticos y ansiedad e insomnio. A su vez, el porcentaje de grasa corporal predijo positivamente estos dos factores.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between several variables of physical fitness, as well as the body fat percentage, and self-rated health. The participants in the study were 264 teenagers from the city of Malaga (Spain), whose age ranged between 14 and 16 years old (M=15.05; SD=0.78). The body fat percentage was measured by means of a bioelectrical impedance analysis and the Course-Navette test was used to assess the maximal oxygen consumption. Moreover, other measured variables were the time to run 50 metres and the distance jumped horizontally. The General Health Questionaire (GHQ-28) was used to evaluate the self-rated health. The linear regression and correlation analysis highlighting that the variables physical fitness and body fat percentage were associated with GHQ-28 subscales scores except severe depression. In particular, the maximal oxygen consumption predicted negatively somatic symptoms and anxiety and insomnia factors. In addition, the body fat percentage predicted positively these factors.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03401

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Palabras clave/key words


condición física; composición corporal; percepción de salud; adolescentes; physical fitness; body composition; self-rated health; adolescence.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
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