La mirada de los porteros de fútbol sala ante diferentes tipos de respuesta motriz. [Futsal goalkeepers’ gaze behavior with different type of motor response].

José Antonio Navia, Luis Miguel Ruiz, José Luis Graupera Sanz, John Van der Kamp, Carlos Avilés

Resumen


En este estudio se exploró y analizó el comportamiento visual de un grupo de porteros expertos de fútbol sala con el objetivo de comprobar cómo el tipo de respuesta motriz solicitada influía en su comportamiento visual. Participaron 4 porteros a los que se les presentó un total de 48 clips de vídeo en una pantalla a tamaño real, bajo dos condiciones de respuesta: con movimiento de parada y sin movimiento de parada. Se registró su mirada con el pupilómetro ASL Mobile Eye durante dos condiciones de tiro de penalti. Se analizó la mirada en el intervalo de -250 a 205 ms en torno al disparo. Los resultados mostraron que cuando respondían con la acción habitual de parada, solo se encontraron fijaciones en la mitad de los casos, estas fijaciones eran de corta duración y localizadas principalmente en la zona del suelo justo enfrente del balón. Por el contrario, cuando se mantenían en posición estática, su mirada se dirigía hacia la zona entre el balón y la pierna de apoyo, empleando fijaciones de una duración más larga. Se puede concluir que el comportamiento visual fue diferente entre las dos condiciones como resultado de la adaptación a las demandas espacio-temporales específicas de cada condición, ya que el grado de movimiento en la respuesta solicitada tuvo influencia en el comportamiento visual asociado.

Abstract

This study explored and analyzed the visual behavior of a group of experts from futsal goalkeepers in order to check on if the type of requested motor response influenced their visual behavior. Four goalkeepers were presented with a total of 48 video clips on a real-size screen, under two response conditions: with and without movement. Gaze was recorded with the ASL Mobile Eye eyetracker, and was analyzed in the range of -250 to 205 ms around the penalty kick. The results showed that when responding with the usual stoping action, fixations were found only in the half of the cases, being of short duration, and localized mainly in the area of in front of the ball. By contrast, when held in a static position, their gaze was directed towards the area between the ball and the non-kiking leg, employing fixations of a longer duration. We conclude that the visual behavior was different between the two conditions as a result of adaptation to the specific spatio-temporal demands of each condition, since the degree of movement in the requested response influenced the associated visual behavior.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03305

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Referencias/references

Abernethy, B., & Russell, D.G. (1987). The relationship between expertise and visual search strategy in a racquet sport. Human Movement Science, 6, 283-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-9457(87)90001-7 

Araújo, D.; Davids, K., & Passos, P. (2007). Ecological Validity, Representative Design, and Correspondence Between Experimental Task Constraints and Behavioral Setting: Comment on Rogers, Kadar, and Costall (2005). Ecological Psychology, 19(1), 69-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10407410709336951

Dicks, M.; Button, C., & Davids, K. (2010a). Examination of gaze behaviors under in situ and video simulation task constraints reveals differences in information pickup for perception and action. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 72(3), 706-720.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/APP.72.3.706
PMid:20348577

Dicks, M.; Davids, K., & Button, C. (2010b). Individual differences in the visual control of intercepting a penalty kick in association football. Human Movement Science, 29(3), 401-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2010.02.008
PMid:20359763

Dreyfus, H. (2002). Intelligence without representations. Merleau Ponty's critique of mental representations. Phenomenological Cognitive Sciences, 1, 367-383
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021351606209

Goodale, M., & Milner, D. (1992). Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 20-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236(92)90344-8

Land, M.F., & McLeod, P. (2000). From eye movements to actions: How batsmen hit the ball. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1340-1345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/81887

Mann, D.T.; Williams, A.M.; Ward, P., & Janelle, C. (2007). Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Sport: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29, 457-478.
PMid:17968048

Oliveira, R.; Damisch, L.; Hossner, E.; Oudejans, R.; Raab, M.; Volz, K., et al. (2009). The bidirectional links between decision making, perception, and action. Progress in Brain Research, 174, 85-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(09)01308-9

Panchuk, D., & Vickers, J.N. (2006). Gaze behaviors of goaltenders under spatial–temporal constraints. Human Movement Science, 25, 733-752.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2006.07.001
PMid:17050024

Savelsbergh, G.; Van der Kamp, J.; Williams, A.M., & Ward, P. (2005). Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers. Ergonomics, 48(11-14), 1686-1697.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140130500101346
PMid:16338733

Savelsbergh, G.; Williams, A.M.; Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2002). Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(3), 279-287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404102317284826
PMid:11999482

Singer, R.; Williams, A.M.; Frehlich, S.; Janelle, C.; Radlo, S.; Barba, D., et al. (1998). New Frontiers in Visual Search: An Exploratory Study in Live Tennis Situations. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 69(3), 290-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1998.10607696

Williams, A.M., & Davids, K. (1998). Visual search strategy, selective attention, and expertise in soccer. / Strategie de recherche visuelle, attention selective et expertise dans le domaine du football. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 69(2), 111-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1998.10607677
PMid:9635326

Williams, A.M.; Ward, P.; Smeeton, N., & Allen, D. (2004). Developing Anticipation Skills in Tennis Using On-Court Instruction: Perception versus Perception and Action. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(4), 350-360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200490518002

---------------------------------------------------------------------


Palabras clave/key words


comportamiento visual; deporte; tipo de respuesta; penalti; fútbol sala; gaze behaviour; sport, response condition; penalty; futsal.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License