Variación de la testosterona y el cortisol en relación al estado de ánimo en jugadores de baloncesto de élite. [Variation in testosterone and cortisol with relation to mood state in professional basketball players].

Xavi Schelling, Julio Calleja-González, Nicolás Terrados


Objetivo: Diferentes trabajos constatan que el perfil hormonal varía de forma específica en función del tipo de ejercicio y de su magnitud. El estado emocional se ha estudiado mediante diferentes herramientas en relación a la carga de entrenamiento, probablemente la más empleada sea el cuestionario POMS (‘Profile of mood states’). La presente investigación estudia la respuesta de la testosterona total (TT), el cortisol (C) y la ratio testosterona total-cortisol (RTTC) en relación al estado emocional (sub-escalas del POMS) en un equipo profesional de baloncesto a lo largo de una temporada deportiva. Procedimiento: Se tomaron 7 muestras de sangre, cada 4-6 semanas, a las 8:00-9:00 AM, en ayunas y tras 24-36 horas de recuperación post-partido, en un equipo profesional de baloncesto de la 1ª división española (n=10; 26.0 ± 4.6 años; 90.9 ± 9.7 kg; 195.7 ± 8.4 cm; 23.7 ± 1.2 IMC; 13.1 ± 2.2% graso). Resultados: Se obtiene un aumento significativo de la TT y el C en septiembre -2ª extracción- comparado con agosto -1ª extracción- (TT: +2.8 nMol•L-1, p=0.030; C: +0.093 µMol•L-1, p=0.040). No se observan cambios significativos en ninguna de las sub-escalas del POMS y en el análisis correlacional entre sub-escalas y TT, C y RTTC no se obtienen relaciones destacables. Conclusiones: No se encuentra grandes relaciones (r>0.7) entre las variables hormonales estudiadas y las sub-escalas del cuestionario POMS. Consideramos el POMS una herramienta poco adecuada para evaluar el estado de recuperación del deportista, pero muy válida para controlar el nivel de estrés emocional.


Aim: Different studies find that hormonal profile specifically varies depending on the type of exercise and its magnitude. Mood state has been studied using different tools in relation to training load, the most used one is POMS (Profile of Mood States) questionnaire. This research studies the response of total testosterone (TT), cortisol (C) and total testosterone-to-cortisol ratio (RTTC) in relation to mood state (POMS subscales) in a professional basketball team during a season. Methods: Blood samples were taken every 4-6 weeks (7 samples), at 8:00-9:00 AM, in fasting state and after 24 to 36 hours post-game, on a professional basketball team of the Spanish 1st Division (n=10; 26.0 ± 4.6 years; 90.9 ± 9.7 kg; 195.7 ± 8.4 cm; BMI 23.7 ± 1.2; 13.1 ± 2.2% fat). Results: We obtained a significant increase in TT and C in september -2nd sample- compared to august -1st sample- (TT: +2.8 nMol•L-1, p=0.030; C: +0.093 µMol•L-1, p=0.040). No significant changes were observed in any of the POMS subscales, and in the correlation between subscales analysis, and no correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained among subscales and hormonal variables. Conclusions: No relationship was found between the studied hormonal variables and the POMS subscales. We consider the POMS questionnaire an inadequate tool to evaluate the athletes recovery state, but a really good one to control the psychological stress level.



Argus, C.; Gill, N.; Keogh, J.; Hopkins, W., & Beaven, C. (2009). Changes in strength, power, and steroid hormones during a professional rugby union competition. J Strength Cond Res, 23(5), 1583-1592

Banfi, G., & Dolci, A. (2006). Free testosterone/cortisol ratio in soccer: usefulness of a categorization of values. J Sports Med Phys Fit, 46(4), 611-616

Banfi, G.; Marinelli, M.; Roi, G.S., & Agape, V. (1993). Usefulness of free testosterone/cortisol ratio during a season of elite speed skating athletes. Int J Sports Med, 14, 373-379

Bresciani, G.; Cuevas, M. J.; Garatachea, N.; Molinero, O.; Almar, M.; De Paz, J.A., et al. (2010). Monitoring biological and psychological measures throughout an entire season in male handball players. Eur J Sports Sci, 10(6), 377-384

Bresciani, G.; Cuevas, M.J.; Molinero, O.; Almar, M.; Suay, F.; Salvador, A., et al. (2011). Signs of overload after an intensified training. Int J Sports Med, 32(5), 338-343

Buchheit, M.; Bishop, D.; Haydar, B.; Nakamura, F.Y., & Ahmaidi, S. (2010). Physiological responses to shuttle Repeated-Sprint running. Int J Sports Med, 31, 402-409

Busso, T.; Hakkinen, K.; Pakarinen, A.; Kauhanen, H.; Komi, P., & Lacour, J. (1992). Hormonal adaptations and modelled responses in elite weightlifters during 6 weeks of training. Eur J Appl Physiol, 64, 381-386

Carré, J.M.; McCormick, C.M., & Hariri, A.R. (2011). The social neuroendocrinology of human aggression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(7), 935-944

Coutts, A.; Reaburn, P.; Piva, T., & Rowsell, G. (2007). Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players. Eur J Appl Physiol, 99(3), 313-324

Crewther, B.T.; Cook, C.; Cardinale, M.; Weatherby, R.P., & Lowe, T. (2011). Two Emerging Concepts for Elite Athletes: The Short-Term Effects of Testosterone and Cortisol on the Neuromuscular System and the Dose-Response Training Role of these Endogenous Hormones. Sports Med, 41(2), 103-123

Cunniffe, B.; Hore, A.; Whitcombe, D.; Jones, K.; Baker, J., & Davies, B. (2010). Time course of changes in immuneoendocrine markers following an international rugby game. Eur J Appl Physiol, 108(1), 113-122

Daniels, S.R.; Khoury, P.R., & Morrison, J.A. (1997). The Utility of Body Mass Index as a Measure of Body Fatness in Children and Adolescents: Differences by Race and Gender. Pediatrics, 99(6), 804-807

Duclos, M.; Gouarne, C., & Bonnemaison, D. (2003). Acute and chronic effects of exercise on tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. J Appl Physiol, 94, 869-875

Duclos, M.; Guinot, M., & Le Bouc, Y. (2007). Cortisol and GH: odd and controversial ideas. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 32(5), 895–903

Filaire, E.; Bernain, X.; Sagnol, M., & G., L. (2001). Preliminary results on mood state, salivary testosterone:cortisol ratio and team performance in a professional soccer team. Eur J Appl Physiol, 86(2), 179-184

Fry, A.; Grove, J.; Morton, A.; Zeroni, P.; Gauderi, S., & Keast, D. (1994). Psychological and immunological correlates of acute overtraining. Br J Sports Med, 28(4), 241-246
PMid:7894955 PMCid:PMC1332084

Fry, R.; Morton, A., & Keast, D. (1991). Overtraining in athletes. An update. Sports Med., 12(1), 32-65

Fukuda, S., & Morimoto, K. (2001). Lifestyle, Stress and Cortisol Response: Review II. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 6, 15-21
PMid:21432232 PMCid:PMC2723649

González-Bono, E.; Salvador, A.; Ricarte, J.; Serrano, M.A., & Arnedo, M. (2000). Testosterone and attribution of successful competition. Aggressive Behav, 26(3), 235-240<235::AID-AB3>3.0.CO;2-L

González-Bono, E.; Salvador, A.; Serrano, M.A.; Moya-Albiol, L., & Martínez-Sanchis, S. (2002a). Effects of Training Volume on Hormones and Mood in Basketball Players. Int J Stress Management, 9(4), 263-273

González-Bono, E.; Salvador, A.; Serrano, M.A.; Moya-Albiol, L., & Martínez-Sanchis, S. (2002b). Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to cycle ergometry in basketball players with different training volume. J Psychophysiol, 16(3), 158-161

González-Bono, E.; Salvador, A.; Serrano, M.A., & Ricarte, J. (1999). Testosterone, Cortisol, and Mood in a Sports Team Competition. Horm Behav, 35(1), 55-62

Gorostiaga, E.M.; Izquierdo, M.; Ruesta, M.; Iribarren, J.; González-Badillo, J. J., & Ibá-ez, J. (2004). Strength training effects on physical performance and serum hormones in young soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol, 91(5), 698-707

Gouarné, C.; Groussard, C.; Gratas-Delamarche, A.; Delamarche, P., & Duclos, M. (2005). Overnight urinary cortisol and cortisone add new insights into adaptation to training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37(7), 1157-1167.

Hackney, A., & Viru, A. (2008). Research methodology: endocrinologic measurements in exercise science and sports medicine. J Athl Train., 43(6), 631–639
PMid:19030142 PMCid:PMC2582556

Häkkinen, K.; Pakarinen, A.; Alén, M.; Kauhanen, H., & Komi, P.V. (1988). Daily hormonal and neuromuscular responses to intensive strength training in 1 week. Int J Sports Med, 9(6), 422-428

Haus, E. (2007). Chronobilogy in the endocrine system. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 59, 985-1014

He, C.; Tsai, M.L.; Ko, M.H.; Chang, C.K., & Fang, S.H. (2010). Relationships among salivary immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin and cortisol in basketball players during a basketball season. Eur J Appl Physiol, 110(5), 989-995

Hoffman, J.; Kang, J.; Ratamess, N., & Faigenbaum, A. (2005). Biochemical and hormonal responses during an intercollegiate football season. Med Sci Sport Exerc, 37(7), 1237-1241

Hoffman, J.R.; Bar-Eli, M., & Tenenbaum, G. (1999). An examination of mood changes and performance in a professional basketball team. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 39(1), 74-79

Hoogeveen, A., & Zonderland, M. (1996). Relationships between testosterone, cortisol and performance in professional cyclists. Int J Sports Med, 17, 423-428

Hooper, S.; Mackinnon, L.T., & Howard, A. (1999). Physiological and psychometric variables for monitoring recovery during tapering for major competition. Med Sci Sport Exer, 31(8), 1205-1210

Hopkins, W.; Marshall, S.; Batterham, A., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41, 3-13

Hough, J. P.; Papacosta, E.; Wraith, E., & Gleeson, M. (2011). Plasma and salivary steroid hormone responses of men to high-intensity cycling and resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res, 25(1), 23-31

Houmard, J.A.; Costill, D.L.; Mitchell, J.B.; Park, S.H.; Fink, W.J., & Burns, J.M. (1990). Testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase levels in male distance runners during reduced training. Int J Sports Med, 11, 41–45

Kraemer, W.; Spiering, B.A.; Volek, J.S.; Martin, G.J.; Howard, R.L.; Ratamess, N.A., et al. (2009). Recovery from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football game: muscle damage and hormonal status. J Strength Cond Res, 23(1), 2–10

Kraemer, W.J., & Ratamess, N.A. (2005). Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med., 35(4), 339-361

Mäestu, J.; Jürimäe, J., & Jürimäe, T. (2005). Monitoring of performance and training in rowing. Sport Med, 35, 597-617

Martínez, A.C.; Seco, J.; Tur, J.A.; Abecia, L.C.; Orella, E.E., & Biescas, A.P. (2010). Testosterone and Cortisol Changes in Professional Basketball Players Through a Season Competition. J Strength Cond Res, 24(4), 1102-1108

Maso, F.; Lac, G.; Filaire, E.; Michaux, O., & Robert, A. (2004). Salivary testosterone and cortisol in rugby players: correlation with psychological overtraining items. Brit J Sport Med, 38(3), 260-263

McNair, D.M.; Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1992). Manual for the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Revised. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.

Meeusen, R.; Duclos, M.; Gleeson, M.; Rietjens, G.; Steinacker, J., & Urhausen, A. (2006). Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the Overtraining Syndrome. Eur J Sports Sci, 6(1), 1-14

Meriggiola, M.; Noonan, E.; Paulsen, C., & Bremner, W. (1996). Annual patterns of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone and inhibin in normal men. Hum Reprod, 11(2), 248-252

Moore, C.A., & Fry, A.C. (2007). Nonfunctional overreaching during off-season training for skill position players in collegiate American football. J Strength Cond Res., 21(3), 793-800

Moreira, A.; Arsati, F.; de Oliveira Lima Arsati, Y.; da Silva, D., & de Araújo, V. (2009). Salivary cortisol in top-level professional soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(1), 25-30

Morgan, W.P.; Brown, D.R.; Raglin, J.S.; O'Connor, P.J., & Ellickson, K.A. (1987). Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness. Brit J Sport Med, 21(3), 107-114

Morgan, W.P.; Costill, D.L.; Flynn, M.G.; Raglin, J.S., & O'Connor, P.J. (1988). Mood disturbance following increased training in swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 20(4), 408-414

Mujika, I.; Chatard, J.; Padilla, S.; Guezennec, C., & Geyssant, A. (1996). Hormonal responses to training and it's tapering off in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance. Eur J Appl Physiol, 74, 361-366

Mujika, I.; Padilla, S.; Pyne, D., & Busso, T. (2004). Physiological changes associated with the pre-event taper in athletes. Sports Med, 34(13), 891-927

Pierce, E.F. (2002). Relationship between training volume and mood state in competitive swimmers during a 24-week season. Percept Mot Skills, 94(3 Pt 1), 1009-1012

Rosner, W.; Auchus, R.J.; Azziz, R.; Sluss, P.M., & Raff, H. (2007). Utility, Limitations, and Pitfalls in Measuring Testosterone: An Endocrine Society Position Statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 92(2), 405-413

Salvador, A.; Suay, F.; Gonzalez-Bono, E., & Serrano, M.A. (2003). Anticipatory cortisol, testosterone and psychological responses to judo competition in young men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 364-375

Seidman, D.; Dolev, E.; Deuster, P.; Burstein, R.; Arnon, R., & Epstein, Y. (1990). Androgenic response to long-term physical training in male subjects. Int J Sports Med, 11(6), 421-424

Svartberg, J.; Jorde, R.; Sundsfjord, J.; Bonaa, K.H., & Barrett-Connor, E. (2003). Seasonal variation of testosterone and waist to hip ratio in men: the Tromsø study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 88(7), 3099–3104

Tanskanen, M.; Kyröläinen, H.; Uusitalo, A.; Huovinen, J.; Nissilä, J.; Kinnunen, H., et al. (2011). Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training. J Strength Cond Res, 25(3), 787-797

Tremblay, M.S.; Copeland, J.L., & Van Helder, W. (2003). Effect of training status and exercise mode on endogenous steroid hormones in men. J Appl Physiol, 96(2), 531-539

Urhausen, A.; Gabriel, H., & Kindermann, W. (1995). Blood hormones as markers of training stress and overtraining. Sports Med., 20(4), 251-276

Urhausen, A., & Kindermann, W. (2002). Diagnosis of Overtraining: What Tools Do We Have? Sports Med, 32(2), 95-102

Van Uytfanghe, K.; Stockl, D.; Kaufman, J.M.; Fiers, T.; Ross, H. A.; De Leenheer, A. P., et al. (2004). Evaluation of a candidate reference measurement procedure for serum free testosterone based on ultrafiltration and isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem, 50(11), 2101-2110

Vervoorn, C.; Quist, A.; Vermulst, L.; Erich; de Vries, W., & Thijssen, J. (1991). The behaviour of the plasma free testosterone/cortisol ratio during a season of elite rowing training. Int J Sports Med, 12, 257-263

Viru, A.; Hackney, A.; Välja, E.; Karelson, K.; Janson, T., & Viru, M. (2001). Influence of prolonged continuous exercise on hormone responses to subsequent exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol, 85(6), 578-585

Viru, A., & Viru, M. (2001). Biochemical monitoring of sport training. Champaign: Human Kinetics.




Palabras clave/key words

hormonas; estado emocional; baloncesto; elite; hormones; basketball elite; mood state; performance.

Texto completo/Full Text:


------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License