Influence of the biomechanical variables of the gait cycle in running economy. [Influencia de variables biomecánicas del ciclo de paso en la economía de carrera].

Jordan Santos-Concejero, Cristina Granados, Jon Irazusta, Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Jon Zabala-Lili, Nicholas Tam, Susana M. Gil

Resumen


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between biomechanical variables and running economy (RE). Eleven recreational (RR) and 14 well-trained runners (WT) completed 4 min stages on a treadmill at different speeds. During the test, biomechanical variables such as ground contact time (tc), swing time (tsw), stride length, frequency and angle and the length of the different subphases of ground contact were calculated using an optical measurement system. VO2 was measured in order to calculate RE. The WT runners were more economical than the RR at all speeds and presented lower tc, higher tsw, longer strides, lower stride frequencies and higher stride angles (P<0.05). Similarly, the WT runners experienced a later propulsion subphase than the RR runners (P<0.05). RE was positively related to tc, stride frequency and 10-km race pace, whereas it was negatively related to tsw, stride length, stride angle and the propulsive subphase. Our results suggest that running patterns characterized by longer stride lengths and higher stride angles, lower stride frequencies and tc, higher tsw and later propulsion suphases may enable an efficient energy use per stride. 

Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio fue el investigar las relaciones entre diferentes variables biomecánicas y la economía de carrera (RE). Once atletas populares (RR) y 14 atletas altamente entrenados (WT) completaron estadios de 4 min en tapiz rodante a diferentes velocidades. Durante el test, el tiempo de contacto (tc) y de vuelo (tsw), la longitud, frecuencia y ángulo de zancada y la duración de las diferentes sub-fases del tiempo de contacto se calcularon usando un sistema óptico. Se midió el VO2 para calcular la RE. Los atletas WT fueron más económicos que los RR y presentaron menores tc, mayores tsw, zancadas más largas, frecuencias más bajas y ángulos mayores (P<0.05). Además, los atletas WT experimentaron la sub-fase propulsiva más tarde que los RR (P<0.05). La RE estuvo positivamente relacionada con el tc, la frecuencia de zancada y el ritmo de 10 km, mientras que estuvo negativamente relacionada con el tsw, longitud y ángulo de zancada y la sub-fase propulsiva. Estos resultados sugieren que una biomecánica caracterizada por zancadas más largas, ángulos de zancada y tsw mayores, menores frecuencias y tc, y sub-fases propulsivas más tardías pueden favorecer un uso energético más eficiente.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2014.03601

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Palabras clave/key words


ground contact; stride angle, swing time; stride length; stride frequency; Tiempo de contacto; ángulo de zancada; tiempo de vuelo; longitud de zancada; frecuencia de zancada.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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