Análisis y evolución histórica de los nombres de marcas de zapatillas deportivas. [Analysis and historical evolution of the names of sport footwear brands].

José A. Martínez, Jorge Muñoz


En la literatura de marketing se considera que la elección de un nombre de marca es una manera de construir valor de marca para un nuevo producto (Aaker, 1996). Centrándose en un sector industrial de gran dinamismo y expansión, como es el de zapatillas deportivas, esta investigación realiza el análisis de las tipologías de nombres de marcas de este producto, con el fin de establecer una descripción de las diferentes formas existentes para construir un nombre de marca, así como su evolución histórica, desde finales del siglo XIX hasta la actualidad. A través del análisis de 196 enseñas originarias de diversos países, y empleando la metodología del análisis de contenido, los resultados muestran un dibujo completo de las formas de nombrar a una marca de calzado deportivo, además de ciertos cambios sustanciales en la tipología de los nombres, tanto a nivel semántico, como fonético y morfológico. Las implicaciones para la gestión de este tipo de productos son discutidas finalmente.


The marketing literature considers that choosing the name of a brand is an important concern for executives, in order to build brand equity for a new product (Aaker, 1996). In a dynamic and growing industry such as sport footwear, this research achieved an analysis of the different types of brand names, with the aim to establish a description of the disparate forms of creating a brand name. In addition, this study showed the historical evolution of brand names, from the end of the XIX century to the current days. Through the analysis of 196 brand names coming from divergent countries, and after applying the content analysis method, results showed a complete picture about how to name a sport footwear brand. Moreover, findings indicated several significant changes along time, regarding the form of naming a brand, from the semantic, phonetic and morphologic viewpoint. Implications for the managing of this type of products were finally discussed.



Aaker, D. A. (1996). Building strong brands. New York: Free Press

Aamidor, A. (2006). Chuck Taylor, All Star: The True Story of the Man behind the Most Famous Athletic Shoe in History. Indiana University Press.

Argo, J. J.; Popa, M., & Smith, M. C. (2010). The sound of brands. Journal of Marketing, 74(4), 97-109.

Coombe, R. J. (1998). The Cultural Life of Intellectual Properties: Authorship, Appropriation, and the Law (Post-Contemporary Interventions) Duke University Press Books

DeMello, M. (2009). Feet and Footwear: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Macmillan. 

Dimofte, C. V. & Yalch, R. F. (2011). The mere association effect and brand evaluations. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21, 24-27.

Fryer R. & Levitt S. (2004). The causes and consequences of distinctively Black names. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(3), 767-805.

Golder, P. N. (2000). Historical method in marketing research with new evidence on long-term market share stability. Journal of Marketing Research, 37, 156-172.

Goodyear, C. (1844). Improvement in India-Rubber fabrics. United States Patent Office, Letters Patent No. 3633, 15 June 1844, 2 p.

Gottschalk, L. R. (1969). Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Gunasti, K. & Ross, W. T. Jr. (2010). How and when alpha-numerical brand names affect consumer preferences. Journal of Marketing Research, 47, 1177-1192.

Hayes, A. F. & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures, 1,77-89.

Jorda-Albiñana, B.; Ampuero-Canellas, O.; Gonzalez-del-Rio, J. & Magal-Royo, T. (2010). Análisis lingüístico de los nombres de marcas españoles, Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas, 5, 79-90.

Kalist, D. E. & Lee. D. Y. (2009). First Names and Crime: Does Unpopularity Spell Trouble? Social Science Quarterly, 90(1), 39-49.

Katz, D. (1994). Just Do It: The Nike Spirit in the Corporate World. Adams Media Corporation, Hollbrook, MA.

Kelly, S. W. & Tian, K. (2004). Fanatical consumption. An investigation of the behaviour of sports fans through textual data. En Kahle y Riley (Ed), Sports marketing and the psychology of marketing communication, 27 – 65.

Kohli, C, S. & Suri, R. (2000). Brand Names that Work: A study of the Effectiveness of Different Types of Brand Names. Marketing Management Journal, 10(2), 112 – 120.

Kotler, P. (2000). Dirección de Marketing. Edición del Milenio. Prentice Hall

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. 2nd ed. Sage publication. Thousand Oaks, California.

Kuehnl, C. & Mantau, A. (2013). Same sound, same preference? Investigating sound symbolism effects in international brand names. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30, 417-420.

Lowrey, T.M.; Shrum, L.J. & Dubitsky, T. M. (2003). The relation between brand-name linguistic characteristics and brand-name memory. Journal of Advertising, 32(3), 7-17.

Martínez, J. A. (2012). Formas de comunicación impresa de las marcas de textil y calzado deportivo en publicaciones de baloncesto. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 29(8), 180-201.

Martínez, J. A. (2013). Do names matter? The influence of names on perception about professionals in Spain. Economic & Business Letters, 2(2), 66-74.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks, London.

Packaged Facts. (2009). The global footwear market.

Pavia, T. (1994). Brand Names and Consumer Inference: the Effect of Adding A Numeric Component to A Brand Name, en  Chris T. Allen and Deborah Roedder John (eds), Advances in Consumer Research Volume 21 (195-200). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research

Riffe, D.; Lacy, S. & Fico, F. (2008). Analyzing media messages. Using quantitative content analysis in research. Taylor & Francis Group. New York.

Robertson, K. (1989). Strategically desirable brand name characteristics. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(4), 61-71.

Shrum, L.J.; Lowrey, T.; Luna, D.; Lerman, D. & Liu, M. (2012). Sound Symbolism Effects Across Languages: Implications for Global Brand Names.  International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29, 275-279.

Slater, J., & Lloyd, C. (2004). It’s gotta be the shoes: Exploring the effects of relationships of Nike and Reebok sponsorship on two college athletic programs. En Kahle y Riley (Ed), Sports marketing and the psychology of marketing communication, 191-210.

Smit, B. (2008). Sneaker wars. New York: Harper Collins.

Smith, G. W. (1998). The political impact of name sounds. Communication Monographs, 65(2), 154-172.

Vanderbilt, T. (1998). The sneaker book. Anatomy of an industry and an icon. New York: The New Press.

Yan, D & Duclos, R. (2013). Making sense of numbers: Effects of alphanumeric brands on consumer inference. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30(2), 179–184.

Yorkston, E. & Menon, G. (2004). A sound idea; Phonetic effects of brand names on consumer judgments. Journal of Consumer Research, 33, 43-52.

Palabras clave/key words

zapatillas deportivas; marketing; identidad de marca; análisis históricos; ports shoes; marketing; brand identity; historical analysis.

Texto completo/Full Text:


------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License