Beneficios de un programa de ejercicio físico en mujeres obesas postmenopáusicas. [Improvements of an home-based physical exercise program in obese postmenopausal women].

Francisco García-González, Juan Carlos Ferrer-García, Ana Pablos-Monzó, Laura Elvira-Macagno, Marta Martín-Rodríguez, Raquel Albalat-Galera, Carlos Pablos-Abella

Resumen


Objetivos: evaluar los efectos de un programa ambulatorio de ejercicio físico sobre calidad de vida, parámetros antropométricos y condición física en mujeres obesas posmenopáusicas. Métodos: 106 mujeres posmenopáusicas con obesidad fueron asignadas a participar en un programa ambulatorio de ejercicio físico (aeróbico y anaeróbico), o a recibir información convencional sobre dieta y ejercicio. Se evaluó a los 6 meses el efecto del programa sobre calidad de vida (tests Euroqol, Rosenberg y valoración subjetiva de salud), peso, índice cintura y masa grasa, y resistencia y fuerza física. Resultados: Las mujeres incluidas en el grupo de ejercicio mejoraron su calidad de vida a los seis meses de iniciado el programa (EuroQol 0,74 (0,25) frente a 0,42 (SD 0,39); Rosenberg: 25,26 (4,62) frente a 20,56 (5,21); valoración subjetiva de salud (%): 72,5 (18,45) frente a 58,36 (19,62); p<0,001) y redujeron peso (87,82 (14,88) frente a 92,21 (14,69); p<0,001) e IMC (36,12 (5,58) frente a 37,99 (5,93); p<0,001. La fuerza en miembros inferiores mejoró (31,88 (15,61) frente a 28,79 (16,75); p<0,001). No se obtuvo mejora en el resto de parámetros de condición física. En el grupo control no hubo mejoras en las variables analizadas. Se produjeron 31 abandonos tras 24 semanas. Conclusiones: un programa ambulatorio de ejercicio mejora la calidad de vida, reduce el peso y la masa grasa en mujeres obesas posmenopáusicas. La alta tasa de abandono debe considerarse un factor limitante en este tipo de programas.

Abstract

Background: To determine the efficacy of a home-based physical exercise program on quality of life, physical condition and anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: 106 obese postmenopausal women were randomized to participate in a home-based physical exercise program, contains aerobic and anaerobic activity, or to receive conventional information about diet and exercise. After 6 months, effects on quality of life were evaluated by means of three psychological tests: EuroQoL, Rosenberg and subjective evaluation of health. Moreover, changes in body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), adipose tissue mass, biochemical parameters and physical condition parametrers were measured. Results: Women included in the exercise group improved their quality of life after six months (EuroQoL: 0.74 (0.25) vs 0.42 (0.39); Rosenberg: 25.25 (4.62) vs 20.56 (5.21); subjective evaluation of health (%): 72.5 (18.45) vs 58.36 (19.62); p<0.001), and reductions in weight (87.82 (14.88) vs 92.21 (14.69); p<0.001) and BMI (36.12 (5.58) vs 37.99 (5.93); p<0.001). Legs strength improved (31.88 (15.61) vs 28.79 (16.75)). No changes were observed in control group. Thirty-one subjects withdrew from the study before 24 weeks. Conclusions: obese postmenopausal women improve quality of life and reduce weight and fat mass after a home-based physical exercise program. The high withdrawal rate should be considered as the great problem in this kind of programs.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2014.03805

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Palabras clave/key words


obesidad; menopausia; ejercicio físico; calidad de vida; peso; obesity; menopause; physical exercise; quality of life; weight.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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