Efectos de un protocolo de entrenamiento de alta intensidad sobre marcadores fisiológicos de estrés en ratas. [Physiological effects of the stress induced by a high-intensity exercise protocol in rats].

Daniel Camiletti-Moirón, Gerardo Medina, Ángel Núñez, Ana Andrade, Rosario Martínez, Elena Nebot, Garyfallia Kapravelou, Jesús M. Porres, María López-Jurado, Pilar Aranda, Virginia A. Aparicio

Resumen


El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar los posibles efectos del estrés fisiológico producidos por un programa de entrenamiento de alta intensidad (EAI) en ratas. Cuarenta ratas Wistar fueron aleatoriamente distribuidas en 2 grupos experimentales: grupo EAI o grupo control, durante 12 semanas. Se estimaron índices biológicos, parámetros musculares, urinarios, plasmáticos, de perfil lipídico hepático y morfológicos renales. Tanto la ingesta media (P<0.05) como el peso final y de la canal  (ambos, P<0,001) fueron menores en el grupo EAI. Los marcadores hormonales reflejaron mayores concentraciones de corticosterona (P<0.05) junto con una disminución de las de testosterona (P<0.05) en el grupo EAI, por lo que la ratio corticosterona/testosterona fue mayor y la de testosterona/corticosterona menor (ambas, P<0.01). A nivel lipídico plasmático, el grupo EAI mostró menores concentraciones de triglicéridos (P<0.01), pero también mayores de colesterol-LDL (P<0.01). A nivel lipídico hepático, la cantidad de grasa fue mayor en el grupo EAI (P<0.01), aunque dicho grupo también presentó menores niveles de triglicéridos (P<0.05). El análisis de morfología renal mostró un aumento del tejido conectivo intersticial en el grupo de EAI  (P<0.05). El estrés inducido por el protocolo de EAI pudo conllevar un estado catabólico que podría haber anulado las esperadas ganancias musculares, alteró el perfil lipídico plasmático y hepático y un perfil renal con mayor predisposición a patologías futuras El presente estudio trata de reproducir un modelo de estrés/sobreentrenamiento que podría darse en deportistas con la intención de profundizar algo más en el conocimiento del alcance que este estado fisiológico pudiera inducir a largo plazo en órganos poco estudiados y con ello, en la salud futura del deportista.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the possible stress physiological effects of a high-intensity training (HIT) in rats. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups (n=20): EAI or control (sedentary) groups for 12 weeks. Biological, muscle, urinary, plasma, hepatic and renal markers were measured. Food intake (P<0.05), final body weight and carcass weight (both, P<0.001) were significantly lower in the HIT group. Hormonal markers reflected increased levels of corticosterone (P<0.05) and decreased levels of testosterone (P<0.05) in the HIT group. Consequently, the ratio corticosterone/testosterone was higher and the testosterone/corticosterone lower in the HIT group (both, P<0.01). Regarding hepatic lipid profile, the HIT group showed higher liver fat (P<0.01) but lower hepatic triglycerides  (P<0.05). Regarding plasma lipid profile, the HIT group showed lower triglycerides concentration (P<0.01) but also higher LDL cholesterol concentrations (P<0.01). Finally, the renal morphology study showed increased kidney connective interstitial tissue (P<0.05). The stress induced by the HIT protocol promoted a catabolism status that could lead to a lower muscular development, a worse hepatic and plasma lipid profile and a renal profile with increased susceptibility to future pathologies. The present study aimed to develop a stress/overtraining protocol that might be carried out in athletes with the purpose to deepen study the effects that this adverse status might induce in the long-term health of the athlete.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2015.04004

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Palabras clave/key words


estrés fisiológico; hipertrofia; riñón; metabolismo lipídico; ratas / Stress, physiological; hypertrophy, kidney, lipid metabolism, rats.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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