Efectos del número de jugadores sobre la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo, la frecuencia cardiaca y las conductas de juego en rugby. [Number of players’ effect on perceived exertion, heart rate and tactical behavior in rugby].

Blanca Muñoz-Chavez, Rafael Enrique Reigal, Antonio Hernández-Mendo, María Julia Raimundi

Resumen


El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar los efectos de diferentes juegos reducidos (JR) sobre la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (PSE), la frecuencia cardiaca (FC) y las conductas de juego (CJ) en una muestra de jugadoras de rugby. Participaron 20 jugadoras del equipo de rugby femenino de la Universidad de Málaga (UMA), con edades entre los 16 y 35 años (M = 23.85; DT = 4.67). Para evaluar la PSE se utilizó la Escala de Borg (6 - 20), así como el sistema de monitorización de Firstbeat Sports para analizar la FC y el porcentaje de FC máxima (% FCmáx) durante los JR. Asimismo, los JR fueron grabados para analizar las CJ. Se desarrollaron tres JR con el mismo tamaño de área por jugador (30 m2), 3 vs 3 (180 m2), 4 vs 4 (240 m2) y 5 vs 5 (300 m2). Cada formato de juego se distribuyó en cuatro series de cinco minutos de juego, con dos minutos de recuperación entre cada una de ellos. Los resultados indicaron que el juego reducido 3 vs 3 es la modalidad que generó mayores niveles de PSE, FC, % FCmáx y un mayor número de CJ. La utilización de los JR puede constituir una herramienta eficaz para el trabajo técnico, táctico y físico en el deporte. 

Abstract 

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different small-sided games (SSG) on rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and tactical behavior (TB) in a sample of rugby players. Twenty players from the female team of the University of Malaga (UMA) participated, aged between 16 and 35 years (M = 23.85, SD = 4.67). The Borg Scale (6-20) was used to assess RPE, Firstbeat Sports monitoring system was used to analyze HR and maximum heart rate percentage (% HRmax) during SSG. Moreover, SSG were videotaped to analyze TB. Three SSG with the same size of area per player (30 m2), 3 vs. 3 (180 m2), 4 vs. 4 (240 m2) and 5 vs 5 (300 m2) were developed. Each game format was distributed in four series of five minutes, with two rest minutes between each of them. Results showed that the SSG 3 vs 3 is the modality that generated higher levels of RPE, HR,% HRmax and a larger number of TB. The use of SSG could be an effective tool for technical, tactical and physical work in sport. 

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2015.04205

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Referencias/references

Abrantes, C.; Nunes, M.; Maças, V.; Leite, N., & Sampaio, J. (2012). Effects of the number of players and game type constraints on heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and technical actions of small-sided soccer games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(4), 976-981.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822dd398

Almeida, CH.; Ferreira, AP., & Volossovitch, A. (2012). Manipulating task constraints in small-sided soccer games: Performance analysis and practical implications. Open Sport Science Journal, 5, 174-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1875399X01205010174

Araújo, D. (2013). The study of decision-making behavior in sport. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 9(31), 1-4.

Aroso, J.; Rebelo, N., & Gomes-Pereira, J. (2004). Physiological impact of selected game- related exercises. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(6), 522.

Ato, M.; López-García, J.J., y Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. Anales de Psicología, 29(3), 1038-1059.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.3.178511

Blanco-Villaseñor, Á.; Castellano, J.; Hernández-Mendo, A.; Sánchez-López, C.R., y Usabiaga, O. (2014). Aplicación de la TG en el deporte para el estudio de la fiabilidad, validez y estimación de la muestra. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 23(1), 131-137.

Bompa, T. (1993). Theory and methodology of training: the key to athletics performance. Iowa, Kendal/Hunt: Publishing Company.

Borg G.; Hassmen P., & Lagerstrom  M. (1987).  Perceived exertion related to heart rate and blood lactate during arm and leg exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 56, 679-685.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00424810

Casamichana, D.; Castellano, J., y Hernández-Mendo, A. (2014). La Teoría de la Generalizabilidad aplicada al estudio del perfil físico durante juegos reducidos con diferente orientación del espacio en fútbol. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 10(37), 194-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2014.03702

Casamichana, D.; Castellano, J.; González-Morán, A.; García-Cueto, H., y García-López, J. (2011). Demanda fisiológica en juegos reducidos de fútbol con diferente orientación del espacio. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 23(7), 141-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2011.02306

Casamichana, D., & Castellano, J. (2010). Time-motion, heart rate, perceptual and motor behavior demands in small-sides soccer games: Effects of pitch size. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(14), 1615-1623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.521168

Castagna, C.; Impellizzeri, F.; Chaouachi, A.; Abdelkrim, N., & Manzi, V. (2011). Physiological responses to ball-drills in regional level male basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(12), 1329-1336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.597418

Clemente, F.M.; Rocha, R.F.; Lourenço, F.M., & Sousa, R. (2014). Acute effects of different formats of small-sided and conditioned handball games on heart rate responses in female students during PE classes. Sports, 2(2), 51-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports2020051

Corvino, M.; Tessitore, A.; Minganti, C., & Sibila, M. (2014). Effect of court dimensions on players’ external and internal load during small-sided handball games. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 13(2), 297.

Coutts, A.; Rampinini, E.; Marcora, S.M.; Castagna, C., & Impellizzeri, FM. (2009). Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games. Journal Science Medicine Sport, 12, 79-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.08.005

Coutts, A.; Reaburn, P., & Abt, G. (2003). Heart rate, blood lactate concentration and estimated energy expenditure in a semiprofessional rugby league team during a match: A case study. Journal Sports Science, 21, 97-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000070831

Da Silva, C.D.; Impellizzeri, F.M.; Natali, A.J.; de Lima, J.R.; Bara-Filho, M.G.; Silami-Garçia, E., & Marins, J. C. (2011). Exercise intensity and technical demands of small-sided games in young Brazilian soccer players: Effect of number of players, maturation, and reliability. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(10), 2746-2751.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31820da061

Dellal, A.; Chamari, K.; Pintus, A.; Girard, O.; Cotte, T., & Keller D. (2008). Heart rate responses during small-sided and short intermittent running training in elite soccer players: A comparative study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1449-1457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817398c6

Dellal, A.; Chamari, K.; Pintus, A.; Girard, O.; Cotte, T., & Keller, D. (2008). Heart rate responses during small-sided games and short intermittent running training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1449-1457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817398c6

Dellal, A.; Drust, B., & Lago-Penas, C. (2012). Variation of activity demands in small-sided soccer games. International Journal Sports Medicine, 33(5), 370-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1295476

Dellal, A.; Owen, A.; Wong, D.P.; Krustrup, P.; van Excel, M., & Mallo, J. (2009). Technical and physical demands of small vs. large sided games in relation to playing position in elite soccer. Human Movement Science Journal, 31, 957-969.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2011.08.013

Dellal, A.; Owen, D.P.; Wong, P.; Krustrup, M.; Exsel, V., & Mallo, J. (2012). Technical and physical demands of small vs. large sided games in relation to playing position in elite soccer. Human Movement Science, 31(4), 957-969.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2011.08.013

Duarte, R.; Batalha, N.; Folgado, H., y Sampaio, J. (2009). Effects of exercise duration and number of players in heart rate responses and technical skills during futsal small-sided games. The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 2, 37-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1875399X00902010037

Estell, J.; Lord, P.; Barnsley, L.; Shenstone, B., & Kannangara, S. (1996). The physiological demands of rugby league. In: Proceedings of the Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport. Sports Medicine Australia, 2, 388-389.

Fanchini, M.; Azzalin, A.; Castagna, C.; Schena, F.; Mccall, A., & Impellizzeri, F. (2011). Effect of bout duration on exercise intensity and technical performance of small-sided games in soccer. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(2), 453–458.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c1f8a2

Feriche, B.; Chicharro, J. L.; Vaquero, A. F.; Perez, M., & Lucia, A. (1998). The use of a fixed value of RPE during a ramp protocol. Comparison with the ventilatory threshold. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 38(1), 35-38.

Foster, C.D.; Twist, C.; Lamb, K.L., & Nicholas, C. W. (2010). Heart rate responses to small-sided games among elite junior rugby league players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(4), 906-911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181aeb11a

Frencken, W.; Van Der Plaats, J.; Visscher, C., & Lemmink, K. (2013). Size matters: Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer. Journal of Systems Science and Complexity, 26(1), 85-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11424-013-2284-1

Gabbett, T.J. (2006). Skill-based conditioning games as an alternative to traditional conditioning for rugby league players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(2), 306-315.http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200605000-00013

Gabbett, T.J.; Abernethy, B., & Jenkins, D.G. (2012). Influence of field size on the physiological and skill demands of small-sided games in junior and senior rugby league players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(2), 487-491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318225a371

Gabbett, T.; Jenkins, D.G., & Abernethy, B. (2009). Game-based training for improving skill and physical fitness in team sport athletes. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4(2), 273-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/174795409788549553

Hill-Haas, S.; Coutts, A.; Roswell, G., & Dawson, B. (2008). Variability of acute physiological responses and performance profiles of youth soccer players in small-sided games. Journal  Science  Medicine of Sport, 11, 487-490.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.07.006

Hill-Haas, S.; Coutts, A.J.; Dawson, BT., & Rowsell, GJ. (2010). Time-motion characteristics and physiological responses of small-sided games in elite youth players:the influence of player number and rule changes. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(8), 2149-2156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181af5265

Hill-Haas, S.; Dawson, B.; Coutts, A., & Rowsell, G. (2009). Physiological responses and time–motion characteristics of various small–sided soccer games in youth players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(1), 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802206857

Hill-Haas, S.; Dawson, B.; Impellizzeri, F.M., & Coutts, A. (2011). Physiology of small sided games training in football. A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 41(3), 199- 200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11539740-000000000-00000

Hoff, J.; Wisloff, U.; Engen, L.C.; Kemi, O.J., & Helgerud, J. (2002). Soccer specific aerobic endurance training. British  Journal Sports Medicine, 36, 218-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.36.3.218

Hoff, J., & Helgerud, J. (2004). Endurance and strength training for soccer players. Physiological considerations. Sports Medicine, 34(3), 165-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434030-00003

Impellizzeri, F.M.; Marcora, S.M.; Castagna, C.; Reilly, T.; Sassi, A.; Iaia, F.M., & Rampinini, E. (2006). Physiological and performance effects of generic versus specific aerobic training in soccer players. International  Journal Sports Medicine, 27, 483-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865839

Jones, S., & Drust, B. (2007). Physiological and technical demands of 4 v 4 and 8 v 8 in elite youth soccer players. Kinesiology, 39(2), 150-156.

Katis, A., & Kellis, E. (2009). Effects of small-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(3), 374-380.

Kelly, D.M., & Drust, B. (2009). The effect of pitch dimensions on heart rate responses and technical demands of small-sided soccer games in elite players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(4), 475-479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.01.010

Klusemann, M.J.; Pyne, D.B.; Foster, C., & Drinkwater, E.J. (2012). Optimising technical skills and physical loading in small-sided basketball games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(14), 1463-1471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.712714

Köklü, Y.; Albayrak, M.; Keysan, H.; Alemdaroghe, U., & Dellal, A. (2013). Improvement of the physical conditioning of young soccer players by playing small sided games on different pitch size special reference to physiological responses. Kinesiology, 45(1), 41-47.

Little, T., y Williams, G. (2006). Suitability of soccer training drills for endurance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(2), 316-319.

Morales, M.T., y Arias-Estero, J.L. (2015). Diferencias entre el juego 7 vs. 7 y el 4 vs. 4 en el balonmano escolar en relación al rendimiento, percepción del esfuerzo y la intencionalidad de práctica. Retos, 27, 34-39.

Morgan W.P. (1994). Psychological components of effort senses. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 26, 1071-1077.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199409000-00001

Ortega, E., Villarejo, D., & Palao, J. M. (2009). Differences in game statistics between winning and losing rugby teams in the Six Nations Tournament. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 523–527.

Owen, A.L.; Wong, D.P.; McKenna, M., & Dellal, A. (2011). Heart rate responses and technical comparison between small-vs. large-sided games in elite professional soccer. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2104-2110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199409000-00001

Owen, A.L.; Wong, D.P.; Paul, D., & Dellal, A. (2014). Physical and technical comparisons between various-sided games within professional soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(4), 286-92.

Owen, A.; Twist, C., & Ford, P. (2004). Small-sided games: the physiological and technical effect of altering pitch size and player numbers. Insight, 7(2), 50-53.

Parlebas, P. (2001). Juegos, deportes y sociedad. Léxico de praxiología motriz. Barcelona: Paidotribo

Rampinini, E.; Impellizzeri, F.M.; Castagna, C.; Abt, G.; Chamari, K.; Sassi, A., & Marcora, SM. (2007). Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(6), 659-666.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410600811858

Sampaio, J.E.; Lago, C.; Gonçalves, B.; Maçãs, V.M., & Leite, N. (2014). Effects of pacing, status and unbalance in time motion variables, heart rate and tactical behaviour when playing 5-a-side football small-sided games. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17(2), 229-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.04.005

Sampaio, J.; Abrantes, C., & Leite, N. (2009). Power, heart rate and perceived exertion responses to 3x3 and 4x4 basketball small-sided games. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 18(3), 463-467.

Sampaio, J.; Garcia, G.; Maças, V.; Ibanez, J.; Abrantes, C., & Caixinha P. (2007). Heart rate and perceptual responses to 2x2 and 3x3 small-sided youth soccer games. Journal Sports Science Medicine, 6(suppl. 10), 121-122.

Seitz, L.B.; Rivière, M.; de Villarreal, E.S., & Haff, G.G. (2014). The athletic performance of elite rugby league players is improved after an 8-week small-sided game training intervention. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(4), 971-975.

Sproule, J.; Kunalan, C.; Mcneill, M., & Wright H. (1993). Validity of 20-MST for  predicting VO2 max of adult Singaporean athletes. British Journal Sports Medicine, 27(3). 202- 204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.27.3.202

Tenenbaum, G.; Basevitch, I.; Gershgoren, L., & Filho, E. (2013). Emotions–decision-making in sport: Theoretical conceptualization and experimental evidence. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(2), 151-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2013.773687

Tessitore, A.; Meeusen, R.; Piacentini, M.; Demarie, S., & Capranica, L. (2006). Physiological and technical aspects of ''6–a–side'' soccer drills. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 46(1), 36-43.

Vickery, W.; Dascombe, B.; Duffield, R.; Kellett, A., & Portus, M. (2013). Battlezone: An examination of the physiological responses, movement demands and reproducibility of small-sided cricket games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31 (1), 77-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.720706

Vilar, L.; Araújo, D.; Davids, K., & Button, C. (2012). The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports. Sports Medicine, 42(1), 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11596520-000000000-00000

Villarejo, D., Palao, J. M., y Ortega, E. (2011). Diferencias en las estadísticas de juego entre equipos ganadores y perdedores en la Copa del Mundo de Rugby 2007. Kronos Rendimiento en el Deporte, 10(2), 41-47. 

Villarejo, D., Palao, J. M., Ortega, E., Gomez-Ruano, M., & Kraak, W. (2015). Match-related statistics discriminating between playing positions during the men's 2011 Rugby World Cup. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15(1), 97-111.

Wein, H. (1995). Fútbol a la medida del niño vol.1.Madrid: Gymnos. 

Williams, K., & Owen, A. (2007). The impact of players numbers on the physiological responses to small sided games.  Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6 (Suppl.10), 100-101.

 


Palabras clave/key words


juegos reducidos; percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo; frecuencia cardiaca; acciones de juego; rugby; small-sided games; rating perceived exertion; heart rate; tactical behavior; rugby.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License