Perceived Autonomy-Support Instruction and Student Outcomes in Physical Education and Leisure-Time: A Meta-Analytic Review of Correlates. [Percepción de la formación de apoyo a la autonomía y resultados en estudiantes en educación física y tiempo libre: Una revisión meta-analítica de correlaciones].

Marc Lochbaum, Javan Jean-Noel


Physical inactivity is a global concern. Physical educators have direct access to children. Researchers have investigated the benefits of student perceived physical education (PE) autonomy-supportive instruction in PE and leisure-time (LT). Hence, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the direct effects of perceived PE autonomy-supportive instruction on a number of student outcomes. In total, 39 correlation based studies totaling 23,554 participants were analyzed with mean weighted correlation (rw) as the analyzed effect size. Nearly all effect sizes were statistically significant (p < .01). Effect sizes in PE ranged in meaningfulness from large to small across the PE categories of basic needs, emotions, motivational processes and behaviors, physical activity self-esteem, physical activity motivation, and general self-esteem/concept. For LT, effect sizes were mostly medium to small across the basics needs, motivation processes, and physical activity categories. Thus, though student perceived PE teacher autonomy-support instruction was meaningfully related to basics needs, higher level motivational processes (i.e. intrinsic motivation), and positive emotions in PE and LT, the relationships were small in meaningfulness with regards to physical activity. Future research must elucidate how perceived PE teacher autonomy-support instruction may directly improve children’s physical activity to combat the global inactivity epidemic.


La inactividad física es una preocupación a nivel mundial. Los educadores físicos tienen acceso directo a los niños. Los investigadores han estudiado los beneficios percibidos en educación física (PE) por los estudiantes respecto a la formación en educación física de apoyo a la autonomía tanto en la educación física como en el tiempo libre (TL). Por ende, se realizó un meta-análisis de efecto fijo con el fin comprender los efectos directos de la percepción de formación de apoyo a la autonomía en PE en los resultados de un grupo de estudiantes.  En total, se analizaron 39 estudios de correlación con un total de 23.554 participantes analizados según la correlación de medias ponderada (rw) y el tamaño del efecto analizado. Casi todos los tamaños del efecto fueron estadísticamente significativos (p < 0.01). Los tamaños del efecto en PE oscilaban, de mayor a menor, a través de las categorías de necesidades básicas de educación física, las emociones, los procesos y los comportamientos de motivación, la autoestima y la motivación en la actividad física y la autoestima en general, como concepto. En TL los tamaños del efecto eran, en su mayoría, de medianos a pequeños en la categoría de necesidades básicas, procesos de motivación y actividad física. Por lo tanto, aunque la instrucción de ayuda a la autonomía del profesor de educación física fue percibida por los estudiantes como significativa en relación a las necesidades básicas,  procesos motivacionales de nivel superior (es decir, la motivación intrínseca) y emociones positivas, tanto en educación física como en tiempo libre, las relaciones fueron poco significativas respecto a la actividad física. Futuras investigaciones deben aclarar cómo la percepción de la instrucción del soporte de autonomía del profesor de educación física puede mejorar directamente la actividad física de los niños, para combatir la epidemia de inactividad global.


* = included in meta-analysis

*Aibar, A.; Julian, J. A.; Murillo, B.; Garcia-Gonzalez, L.; Estrada, S., & Bois, J. (2015). Actividad física y apoyo de la autonomía: El rol del profesor de Educación Física. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 24(1), 155-161.

*Baena-Extremera, A.; Granero-Gallegos, A.; Sánchez-Fuentes, J. A., & Martínez-Molina, M. (2014). Predictive model of the importance and usefulness of physical education. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 14(2), 121-130. 

Baard, P. P.; Deci, E. L.; Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(10), 2045-2068.

*Barkoukis, V., & Hagger, M.S., (2009). A test of the trans-contextual model of motivation in Greek high school pupils. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32(2), 152-174.

*Barkoukis, V.; Hagger, M. S.; Lambropoulos, G., & Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2010). Extending the trans-contextual model in physical education and leisure-time contexts: Examining the role of basic psychological need satisfaction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 647-670.

Borenstein, M.; Hedges, L.; Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis: a computer program for research synthesis (version 2.2.064, July, 27, 2011) (computer software). Englewood, NJ: Biostat.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2013. MMWR, 63, SS-4.

*Chen, F.; Yang, J., & Ji, L. (2014). Preliminary testing on the application of self-determination theory in the context of physical education class in China.Journal of Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, 26(5), 465-475.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support and the control of behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1024-1037.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The 'What' and 'Why' of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.

*Garn, A.C.; McCaughtry, N.; Martin, J., Shen, B., & Fahlman, M. (2012). A basic needs theory investigation of adolescents’ physical self-concept and global self-esteem. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(4), 314–328.

*González-Cutre, D.; Sicilia, Á.; Beas-Jiménez, M., & Hagger, M. S. (2014). Broadening the trans-contextual model of motivation: A study with Spanish adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(4), e306-e319.

*Granero-Gallegos, A.; Baena-Extremera, A.;Sánchez-Fuentes, J. A., & Martínez-Molina, M. (2014). Motivational profiles of autonomy support, self-determination, satisfaction, importance of physical education and intention to partake in leisure time physical activity. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 14(2), 59-70.

*Haerens, L.; Aelterman, N.; Vansteenkiste, M.; Soenens, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2015). Do perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching relate to physical education students' motivational experiences through unique pathways? Distinguishing between the bright and dark side of motivation.Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(3), 26-36.

*Hagger, M. S.; Chatzisarantis, N. L. D.; Barkoukis, V.; Wang, J. C. K., & Baranowski, J. (2005). Perceived autonomy support in physical education and leisure-time physical activity: A cross-cultural evaluation of the trans-contextual model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 376-390.

*Hagger, M. S.; Chatzisarantis, N. L. D.; Culverhouse, T., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2003). The processes by which perceived autonomy support in physical education promotes leisure-time physical activity intentions and behavior: A trans-contextual model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 784-795.

*Hagger, M. S.; Chatzisarantis, N. L. D.; Hein, V., Pihu, M.; Soos, I., & Karsai, I. (2007). The perceived autonomy support scale for exercise settings (PASSES): Development, validity, and cross-cultural invariance in young people. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(5), 632-653.

*Hagger, M.S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.; Hein, V.; Soos, I.; Karsai, I.; Lintunen, T., & Leemans, S. (2009). Teacher, peer and parent autonomy support in physical education and leisure-time physical activity: A trans-contextual model of motivation in four nations. Psychology and Health, 24(6), 689-711.

Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, L. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando: Academic.

*Hein, V., & Caune, A. (2014). Relationships between perceived teacher’s autonomy support, effort and physical self-esteem. Kinesiology, 46(2), 218-226.

Higgins, J. T., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21(11), 1539-1558.

Higgins, J. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal, 327(7414), 557-560.

*Koka, A. (2014). The relative roles of teachers and peers on students’ motivation in physical education and its relationship to self-esteem and Health-Related Quality of Life. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 45(3), 187-213.

*Lim, B. S. C., & Wang, C. K. J. (2009). Perceived autonomy-support, behavioural regulation in physical education and physical activity intention.Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 52-60.

*Liukkonen, J.; Barkoukis, V.; Watt, A., & Jaakkola, T. (2010). The relative roles of teachers and peers on students’ motivation in physical education and its relationship to self-esteem and Health-Related Quality of Life. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(5), 295-308.

*Lodewyk, K.R., & Gao, Z. (2013). Fitness-specific epistemic beliefs, effort regulation, outcomes, and indices of motivation in high school physical education. Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance, 8(2), 3-11.

*Lodewyk, K.R., & Pybus, C.M. (2013). Investigating factors in the retention of students in high school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 32(1), 61-77.

Lonsdale, C.; Rosenkranz, R. R.; Peralta, L. R.; Bennie, A.; Fahey, P., & Lubans, D. R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted To Practice And Theory, 56(2), 152-161.

*McDavid, L., & Cox, A.E., Amorose, A.J. (2012). The relative roles of physical education teachers and parents in adolescents’ leisure-time physical activity motivation and behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(2), 99-107.

*Moreno-Murcia, J.A. & Hernandez, E.H. (2013). The importance of supporting adolescents’ autonomy in promoting physical-sport exercise. Spanish Journal of Psychology, E81.

*Moreno-Murcia, J.A.; Rojas, N.P., & Gonzalez-Cutre, D. (2008). Influencía del apoyo a la autonomia, las metas sociales y la relación con los demás sobre la desmotivación en educación física. Psicotherma, 20(4), 636-641.

Ng, J. Y.; Ntoumanis, N.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C.; Deci, E. L.; Ryan, R. M.; Duda, J. L., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives On Psychological Science, 7(4), 325-340.

*Ommundsen, Y., & Kvalø, S.E. (2007). Autonomy-mastery, supportive or performance focused? Different teacher behaviours and pupils’ outcomes in physical education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 51(4), 385-413.

*Pihu, M. & Hein, V. (2007). Autonomy support from physical education teachers, peers and parents among school students: Trans-contextual motivation model. Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuenis, 12, 116-128.

Reeve, J. (2009). Why Teachers Adopt a Controlling Motivating Style toward Students and How They Can Become More Autonomy Supportive.Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159-175.

*Rutten, C.; Boen, F., & Seghers, J. (2012). How school social and physical environments relate to autonomous motivation in physical education: the mediating role of need satisfaction. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31(3), 216-230.

The Scottish Government (2010). WHO European database on nutrition, obesity and physical activity (NOPA). Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

*Shen, B. (2015). Gender differences in the relationship between teacher autonomy support and amotivation in physical education. Sex Roles, 72(3-4), 163-172.

*Shen, B. (2014). Outside-school physical activity participation and motivation in physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(1), 40–57.

*Shen, B. (2010). How can perceived autonomy support influence enrollment in elective physical education? A prospective study. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 81(4), 456-465.

*Shen, B., Li, W., Sun, H., & Rukavina, P.B. (2010). The influence of inadequate teacher-to-student social support on amotivation of physical education students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(4), 417-432.

Spanish Sports Council (2011). Los hábitos deportivos de la población escolar en España [Sporting habits of the school population in Spain]. Madrid: CSD, Fundación Alimentum & Fundación Deporte Joven.

*Standage, M.; Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2006). Students' motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: A self-determination theory approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(1), 100-110

*Standage, M., & Gillison, F. B. (2007). Students’ motivational responses toward school physical education and their relationship to general self-esteem and health-related quality of life. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(5), 704-721.

 *Standage, M.; Gillison, F. B.; Ntoumanis, N., & Treasure, D.C. (2012). Predicting students’ physical activity and health-related well-being: A prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34(1), 37-60.

*Taylor, I. M., & Lonsdale, C. (2010). Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32(5), 655-673.

Teixeira, P. J.; Carraça, E. V.; Markland, D.; Silva, M. N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. The International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity, 9(78).

*Trouilloud, D.; Sarrazin, P.; Bressoux, P., & Bois, J. (2006). Relation between teachers’ early expectations and students’ later perceived competence in physical education classes: Autonomy-supportive climate as a moderator. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 75-86.

*Vlachopoulos, S.P. (2012). The role of self-determination theory variables in predicting middle school students’ subjective vitality in physical education.Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 179-204.

*Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Katartzi, E. S., & Kontou, M. G. (2013). Fitting multidimensional motivation into the Self-determination theory nomological network: Application in school physical education. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 17(1), 40-61. 

Palabras clave/key words

instruction; self-determination theory(SDT); quantitative review; physical education teaching.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF (English)

------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License