El apoyo a la autonomía en practicantes de centros deportivos y de fitness para aumentar su motivación. [The importance of the support to the autonomy in practitioners of sports centers and fitness to increase its motivation and adhesion].

Sílvia Puigarnau, Oleguer Camerino, Marta Castañer, Queralt Prat, M. Teresa Anguera

Resumen


El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio es analizar las opiniones cualitativas y las percepciones de 56 participantes de un programa de actividad física Basado en la autonomía de seis meses de duración, en un centro de fitness. Pretendemos constatar los beneficios, las barreras, el rol del profesional y la importancia de las relaciones sociales establecidas para mejorar su motivación. Los participantes, 56 adultos sedentarios (8 hombres y 48 mujeres) de edades comprendidas entre 18 y 60 años (M = 36,02; DT = 10,15), siguieron las recomendaciones de la OMS de 150 minutos de ejercicio semanal de intensidad moderada y fueron divididos en dos grupos: uno de práctica libre y otro dirigido por un profesional con un estilo de apoyo a la autonomía. Las impresiones sobre los efectos del programa se registraron mediante un diario después de cada sesión y unas entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas sobre una muestra de los participantes. Los resultados se analizaron siguiendo un diseño de mixed methods de triangulación cuantitativo-cualitativo. El análisis de contendido de todas las transcripciones se realizó con el Software Atlas-ti 6.2 y dio paso a una comparación de proporciones con el Software Statgraphics v.16 y a una interpretación cualitativa de estas unidades temáticas en cada grupo. Los resultados muestran que el apoyo del profesional y la cohesión del grupo han ocasionado una mayor asistencia e interés en las sesiones dirigidas, reduciendo el efecto negativo de las propias barreras. El estilo motivante y autónomo del profesional y la percepción de los beneficios que la actividad física ha aportado a ambos grupos, no han sido suficientes para crear una adherencia a esta actividad física una vez finalizada la intervención; pero sí que constituyen un potente facilitador en la consecución de los objetivos del grupo dirigido que ha mantenido un nivel mayor de compromiso en el programa.

Abstract

The aim of this exploratory study was to analyze the qualitative opinions and perceptions of adults who participated in a 6-month exercise motivation program at a fitness center to investigate perceived benefits and barriers, the role of the group leader, and the importance of social relationships to improve motivation. The participants were 56 sedentary adults (8 men and 48 women) aged between 18 and 60 years (mean ± SD age, 36.02 ± 10.15). Based on the recommendations of the World Health Organization for physical activity in adults, the program consisted of 150 minutes of moderate exercise a week and the participants were divided into two groups: a free group and a guided group aided by autonomy-support strategies. The participants recorded their impressions of the effects of the program in a diary after each session and semi-structured interviews were also held with a eight (n=8) participants. The results were analyzed using a mixed methods design with a triangulation model combining qualitative and quantitative data. The diary entries and interview transcripts were coded using criteria derived from the theoretical framework and analyzed in Atlas-ti 6.2. The resulting quantitative data was analized through a comparison of proportions in Statgraphics, v.16, followed by qualitative interpretation of the thematic units for each group. Our results show that support from the group leader and group cohesion were associated with better exercise adherence and interest in the guided group and reduced the negative effects of barriers to exercising. Neither the motivating, autonomy-supportive style of the group leader nor the perceived benefits of exercising were sufficient to ensure exercise adherence after the program. These factors, however, did have a positive impact on the attainment of goals during the program in the guided group, which showed a greater level of commitment throughout.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2016.04303 

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Palabras clave/key words


autonomía; teoría de la autodeterminación; adherencia práctica deportiva; mixed methods; autonomy; self-determination theory (SDT); exercise adherence; mixed methods.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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