Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

Ana Ogueta-Alday, Juan García-López

Resumen


Las carreras de fondo (comprendidas entre los 5 km hasta la maratón) han crecido en España tanto en número como en participación. Esto ha suscitado un gran interés en entrenadores y deportistas, que solicitan información y formación sobre los diferentes factores que afectan al rendimiento. Ante esta demanda, el número de investigaciones ha aumentado notablemente. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica ha sido analizar los factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo desde sus diferentes perspectivas. Para ello, se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica en 3 bases de datos (Medline, SportDiscus y Google Scholar) y los factores han sido clasificados en 5 grandes grupos, subdivididos a su vez en diferentes apartados: 1- ambientales (aire/viento, temperatura, humedad, altura y pendiente del terreno), 2- ligados al entrenamiento (entrenamiento de resistencia, fuerza, en ambientes calurosos y en altura), 3- fisiológicos (VO2max, umbrales ventilatorios, economía de carrera, edad, género, tipos de fibras musculares, fatiga y raza), 4- biomecánicos (antropometría, leg-stiffness, flexibilidad, patrón de pisada, calzado, ortesis plantares y parámetros espacio-temporales) y 5- psicológicos (estrategias de intervención, dirección de la atención y música). La influencia de algunos de éstos sobre el rendimiento es ampliamente conocida; sin embargo, en el caso de algunos factores psicológicos (dirección de la atención y música) y biomecánicos (patrón de pisada y parámetros espacio-temporales) el número de estudios es escaso o los resultados poco concluyentes. La realización de más estudios, conjuntamente con el avance de las nuevas tecnologías y sistemas de medición, permitirá un mejor conocimiento sobre la temática.

Abstract

The number of competitions and participation on long-distance races (from 5 km to the marathon) in Spain has grown significantly during the last few years. Due to this popularity, both coaches and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar) and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground), 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude), 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race), 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters) and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music). Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music) and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters) is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding. 

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2016.04505

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Palabras clave/key words


carrera; resistencia; rendimiento; revisión; running; endurance; performance; review.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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