Analysis of the success in soccer match officials’ decisions during an international tournament according to contextual factors. [Análisis del éxito en las decisiones de los árbitros en partidos oficiales de fútbol durante un torneo internacional atendiendo a factores contextuales].

Daniel Castillo, Javier Raya-González, Oidui Usabiaga, Jesús Cámara-Tobalina, Julen Castellano-Paulis, Javier Yanci-Irigoyen

Resumen


Abstract

This study examined the reliability of the ARBI.e tool as a notational system to observe, code and analyse match officials decisions in soccer, and analysed the degree of success in referee decisions during an international tournament according to contextual factors (e.g., period of the match, competition phase and score) and the zone of the soccer field. Sixty international field referees (FR) and assistant referees (AR) were analysed in this study. Referee decisions were registered during thirty soccer matches of an international tournament and categorized (e.g., FR, AR and other decisions) for further analysis. The tool ARBI.e was an ad hoc tool created by the authors to assess match official decisions. Cohen's Kappa statistic showed values of 0.914-1.00 and 0.827-1.00 for intra-observer and inter-observer analysis, respectively. Despite the high level of success in both FR and AR (95%), some decisions, such as simulations or offside, showed substantially lower success values (64% and 92%, respectively). Besides, match officials’ decisions success was not influenced by the period of the match, tournament phase and score or indeed by the zone of the soccer field. The results obtained suggest the need to include activities based on decision-making skills, mainly in simulations, in training programs to optimize international match officials´ decision making.

Resumen

Este estudio examinó la confiabilidad de la herramienta ARBI.e como sistema notacional para observar, codificar y analizar las decisiones en partidos oficiales de fútbol, y analizó el grado de éxito en las decisiones arbitrales durante un torneo oficial atendiendo a factores contextuales (p.e., periodo del partido, fase de la competición y marcador) y a la zona del campo. Sesenta árbitros internacionales (FR) y asistentes (AR) fueron analizados en este estudio. Las decisiones arbitrales fueron registradas durante 30 partidos de fútbol, pertenecientes a un torneo internacional, los cuales se categorizaron (p.e., FR, AR y otras decisiones) para el posterior análisis. La herramienta ad hoc ARBI.e fue creada por los autores para valorar las decisiones arbitrales. El coeficiente Kappa de Cohen mostró valores desde 0,914 a 1,00 y desde 0,827 a 1,00 para el análisis intra-observador e inter-observador, respectivamente. A pesar del alto nivel de éxito en ambos grupos, FR y AR (95%), algunas decisiones, como las simulaciones o fuera de juego, mostraron un valor de éxito sustancialmente menor (64% y 92%, respectivamente). Por otro lado, el éxito en las decisiones durante los partidos oficiales no estuvo influenciado por el periodo del partido, la fase del torneo y el resultado, ni por la zona del campo en la que tenía lugar la acción. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que es necesario incluir actividades basadas en habilidades de toma de decisiones, principalmente simulaciones, en programas de entrenamiento para optimizar la toma de decisiones durante los partidos oficiales.

https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2019.05701

References/referencias

Anguera, M. T.; Blanco-Villaseñor, A.; Hernández-Mendo, A., & López-Losada, J. L. (2011). Diseños observacionales: ajuste y aplicación en psicología del deporte. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 11(2), 63–76.

Buraimo, B.; Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2010). The 12th man?: refereeing bias in English and German soccer. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 173(2), 431–449.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X.2009.00604.x

Buraimo, B.; Simmons, R., & Maciaszczyk, M. (2012). Favoritism and referee bias in european soccer: evidence from the spanish league and the uefa champions league. Contemporary Economic Policy, 30(3), 329–343.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7287.2011.00295.x

Canovas, S.; Reynes, E.; Ferrand, C.; Pantaléon, N., & Long, T. (2008). Types of errors by referees and perception of injustice by soccer players: a preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 102(1), 99–110.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.102.1.99-110

Castagna, C.; Abt, G., & D’Ottavio, S. (2007). Physiological aspects of soccer refereeing performance and training. Sports Medicine, 37(7), 625–46.

Castellano, J.; Perea, A.; Alday, L., & Hernández-Mendo, A. (2008). The measuring and observation tool in sports. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 898–905.

Castillo, D.; Castagna, C.; Cámara, J.; Iturricastillo, A., & Yanci, J. (2018). Influence of team’s rank on soccer referees’ external and internal match loads during official matches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(6), 1715–1722.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002040

Castillo, D.; Yanci, J.; Casajús, J. A., & Cámara, J. (2016). Physical fitness and physiological characteristics of soccer referees. Science & Sports, 31(1), 27–35.
https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCISPO.2015.11.003

Catteeuw, P.; Gilis, B.; García-Aranda, J.-M.; Tresaco, F.; Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. (2010). Offside decision making in the 2002 and 2006 FIFA World Cups. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(10), 1027–1032.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.491084

Catteeuw, P.; Gilis, B.; Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. (2010). Offside decision making of assistant referees in the English Premier League: impact of physical and perceptual-cognitive factors on match performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(5), 471–481.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903518184

Catteeuw, P.; Helsen, W.; Gilis, B., & Wagemans, J. (2009). Decision-making skills, role specificity, and deliberate practice in association football refereeing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11), 1125–1136.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903079179

Coleclough, J. (2013). Soccer coaches’ and referees’ perceptions of tackle incidents with respect to the laws of the game. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 13(2), 553–566.
https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2013.11868669

FIFA. (2000). Regulations on the Organisations of Refereeing in FIFA Member Associations. Retrieved from:
https://resources.fifa.com/mm/document/tournament/competition/01/28/10/42/defs_regulationsorganisationrefereeinginfifama_inhalt.pdf

Gilis, B.; Helsen, W.; Catteeuw, P.; Van Roie, E., & Wagemans, J. (2009). Interpretation and application of the offside law by expert assistant referees: perception of spatial positions in complex dynamic events on and off the field. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(6), 551–63.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802702178

Harriss, D., & Atkinson, G. (2015). Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2016 Update. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(14), 1121–1124.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1565186

Helsen, W., & Bultynck, J.-B. (2004). Physical and perceptual-cognitive demands of top-class refereeing in association football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(2), 179–89.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410310001641502

Hüttermann, S.; Noël, B., & Memmert, D. (2017). Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer. PloS One, 12(3), e0174358.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174358

Lago-Peñas, C., & Gómez-López, M. (2016). The Influence of referee bias on extra time in elite soccer matches. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 122(2), 666–77.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512516633342

Mallo, J.; Frutos, P. G.; Juárez, D., & Navarro, E. (2012). Effect of positioning on the accuracy of decision making of association football top-class referees and assistant referees during competitive matches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(13), 1437–45.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.711485

Martínez-Gallego, R.; F Guzmán, J.; James, N.; Pers, J.; Ramón-Llin, J., & Vuckovic, G. (2013). Movement characteristics of elite tennis players on hard courts with respect to the direction of ground strokes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 12(2), 275–81.

Oudejans, R.; Bakker, F.; Verheijen, R.; Gerrits, J.; Steinbrückner, M., & Beek, P. (2005). How position and motion of expert assistant referees in soccer relate to the quality or their offside judgements during actual match play. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 36(1), 3–21.

Pietraszewski, P;, Roczniok, R.; Maszczyk, A.; Grycmann, P.; Roleder, T.; Stanula, A.; … Ponczek, M. (2014). The elements of executive attention in top soccer referees and assistant referees. Journal of Human Kinetics, 40(1), 235–43.
https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2014-0025

Van Meerbeek, R.; Van Gool, D., & Bollens, J. (1987). Analysis of the refereeing decisions during the world soccer championship in 1986 in Mexico. In T. Reilly, A. Lees, K. Davids, & W. J. Murphy (Eds.), Science and Football (pp. 377-382). London: E & FN Spon.

Vučković, G.; James, N.; Hughes, M.; Murray, S.; Sporiš, G., & Perš, J. (2013). The effect of court location and available time on the tactical shot selection of elite squash players. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 12(1), 66–73.

Weston, M.; Castagna, C.; Impellizzeri, F. M.; Bizzini, M.; Williams, A. M., & Gregson, W. (2012). Science and medicine applied to soccer refereeing: an update. Sports Medicine, 42(7), 615–31.
https://doi.org/10.2165/11632360-000000000-00000


Palabras clave/key words


football; refereeing; situational factors; officiating decisions; expert perception / fútbol; arbitraje; factores situacionales; decisiones arbitrales; percepción de experto

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF (English) PDF




------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
logopublisher_168
Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License