Analysis of the success in soccer match officials’ decisions during an international tournament according to contextual factors. [Análisis del éxito en las decisiones de los árbitros en partidos oficiales de fútbol durante un torneo internacional atendiendo a factores contextuales].

Daniel Castillo, Javier Raya-González, Oidui Usabiaga, Jesús Cámara-Tobalina, Julen Castellano-Paulis, Javier Yanci-Irigoyen



This study examined the reliability of the ARBI.e tool as a notational system to observe, code and analyse match officials decisions in soccer, and analysed the degree of success in referee decisions during an international tournament according to contextual factors (e.g., period of the match, competition phase and score) and the zone of the soccer field. Sixty international field referees (FR) and assistant referees (AR) were analysed in this study. Referee decisions were registered during thirty soccer matches of an international tournament and categorized (e.g., FR, AR and other decisions) for further analysis. The tool ARBI.e was an ad hoc tool created by the authors to assess match official decisions. Cohen's Kappa statistic showed values of 0.914-1.00 and 0.827-1.00 for intra-observer and inter-observer analysis, respectively. Despite the high level of success in both FR and AR (95%), some decisions, such as simulations or offside, showed substantially lower success values (64% and 92%, respectively). Besides, match officials’ decisions success was not influenced by the period of the match, tournament phase and score or indeed by the zone of the soccer field. The results obtained suggest the need to include activities based on decision-making skills, mainly in simulations, in training programs to optimize international match officials´ decision making.


Este estudio examinó la confiabilidad de la herramienta ARBI.e como sistema notacional para observar, codificar y analizar las decisiones en partidos oficiales de fútbol, y analizó el grado de éxito en las decisiones arbitrales durante un torneo oficial atendiendo a factores contextuales (p.e., periodo del partido, fase de la competición y marcador) y a la zona del campo. Sesenta árbitros internacionales (FR) y asistentes (AR) fueron analizados en este estudio. Las decisiones arbitrales fueron registradas durante 30 partidos de fútbol, pertenecientes a un torneo internacional, los cuales se categorizaron (p.e., FR, AR y otras decisiones) para el posterior análisis. La herramienta ad hoc ARBI.e fue creada por los autores para valorar las decisiones arbitrales. El coeficiente Kappa de Cohen mostró valores desde 0,914 a 1,00 y desde 0,827 a 1,00 para el análisis intra-observador e inter-observador, respectivamente. A pesar del alto nivel de éxito en ambos grupos, FR y AR (95%), algunas decisiones, como las simulaciones o fuera de juego, mostraron un valor de éxito sustancialmente menor (64% y 92%, respectivamente). Por otro lado, el éxito en las decisiones durante los partidos oficiales no estuvo influenciado por el periodo del partido, la fase del torneo y el resultado, ni por la zona del campo en la que tenía lugar la acción. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que es necesario incluir actividades basadas en habilidades de toma de decisiones, principalmente simulaciones, en programas de entrenamiento para optimizar la toma de decisiones durante los partidos oficiales.


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Palabras clave/key words

football; refereeing; situational factors; officiating decisions; expert perception / fútbol; arbitraje; factores situacionales; decisiones arbitrales; percepción de experto

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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