Physiological and physical effect on U-12 and U-15 football players, with the manipulation of task constraints: field size and goalkeeper in small-sided games of 4x4 players. [Efecto fisiológico y físico en los jugadores de fútbol Sub-12 y Sub-15, con la manipulación de las restricciones de tareas: tamaño de campo y portero en juegos reducidos de jugadores 4x4].

Fernando Jorge Santos, Teresa Figueiredo, Cátia Ferreira, Mário Espada



Our study aimed to verify whether the manipulation of task constraints has different effects according to age group. Another objective was to verify the physiological and physical responses in the different formats of small-sided games (SSG). Each team in the SSGs was composed of 4 players (4x4).  The participants in the research are young football players U-12 (n=8) and U-15 (n=8), affiliated with a club certified as a training entity, and competed in the regional football championship of 7 and 9 players and the national championship of Portugal, respectively. The internal and external load data were collected in 5 formats of SSGs with three field size and in 2 used goalkeepers. We used the WIMU PROTM inertial device for data collection. The registration of the internal charge, using heart rate (HR), was performed with the use by the players of Garmin bands, which send the data to WIMU PROTM devices, through of Ant+ technology. The variance analysis (ANOVA) was used to verify the differences between SSGs and the effect size was determined by calculating partial eta-square). Comparisons between the two age groups were evaluated using standardized differences with combined variance (Cohen’s d). The results show that the manipulation of the playing areas and the use of goalkeepers promoted different effects in the two age groups in terms of distance, explosive distance, accelerations/decelerations and maximum sprint. As for the comparison between SSGs we found differences in the level of external load (distance, accelerations/decelerations and maximum sprint). At the level of internal load, the effects were more evident with field areas above 100m2. We can conclude that the manipulation of the task conditions, playing area and goalkeeper, promote different physical and physiological responses, and the coach should consider this fact, as well as the effects promoted in the age groups. 


Nuestro estudio tenía como objetivo verificar si la manipulación de las restricciones de tareas tiene diferentes efectos según el grupo de edad. Otro objetivo era verificar las respuestas fisiológicas y físicas en los diferentes formatos de juegos reducidos y acondicionados (SSG). Cada equipo en los SSGs fue compuesto de 4 jugadores (4x4). Los participantes en la investigación son jóvenes jugadores de fútbol Sub-12(n=8) y Sub-15(n=8), afiliados a un club certificado como entidad de entrenamiento, y compitieron en el campeonato regional de fútbol 7 y 9 y el campeonato nacional de Portugal, respectivamente. Los datos de carga interna y externa se recopilaron en 5 formatos de SSG con tres tamaños de campo y en 2 porteros usados.  Utilizamos el dispositivo inercial WIMU PROTM para la recopilación de datos.  El registro de la carga interna, utilizando la frecuencia cardíaca (FC), se llevó a cabo con el uso por parte de los jugadores de bandas Garmin, que envían los datos a dispositivos WIMU PROTM, a través de la tecnología Ant+. El análisis de varianza (ANOVA) se utilizó para verificar las diferencias entre SSG y el tamaño del efecto se determinó calculando eta-cuadrado parcial).  Las comparaciones entre los dos grupos de edad se evaluaron utilizando diferencias estandarizadas con varianza combinada (d de Cohen). Los resultados muestran que la manipulación de las áreas de juego y el uso de porteros promovieron diferentes efectos en los dos grupos de edad en términos de distancia, distancia explosiva, aceleraciones / desaceleraciones y sprint máximo. En cuanto a la comparación entre SSG encontramos diferencias en el nivel de carga externa (distancia, aceleraciones /desaceleraciones y sprint máximo). A nivel de carga interna, los efectos fueron más evidentes con áreas de campo por encima de 100m2. Podemos concluir que la manipulación de las condiciones de la tarea, área de juego y portero, promover diferentes respuestas físicas y fisiológicas, y el entrenador debe considerar este hecho, así como los efectos promovidos en los grupos de edad.


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Palabras clave/key words

Small-sided games; task constraints; external and internal load; youth; juegos reducidos y acondicionados; restricciones de tareas; control de carga externa; control de carga interna; fútbol juvenil.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
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