Beneficios del Tai Chi Chuan en la osteoartritis, el equilibrio y la calidad de vida (Tai Chi Chuan benefits on osteoarthritis, balance and quality of life)

Pedro Jesús Jiménez-Martín, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Ulrike Albers, Alfonso López-Díaz de Durana


Objetivo: Este trabajo hace una revisión de los estudios científicos realizados a nivel internacional con el fin de actualizar el conocimiento sobre cuáles son los beneficios que aporta la práctica del Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) sobre la osteoartritis de rodilla (OR), el equilibrio, el miedo a las caídas y la calidad de vida. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre ocho bases de datos internacionales (Medline-Pubmed, Scirus, Pascal, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS y PsycINFO) hasta abril del año 2012. Resultados: El número total de estudios analizados fue de 74, de los cuales 13 corresponden a revisiones sistemáticas y 61 a estudios específicos (42 ensayos aleatorios controlados (EAC) y 19 ensayos no controlados (ENC). En particular se analizaron 11 estudios con relación a la osteoartritis de rodilla (7 EAC y 4 ENC), 32 sobre el equilibrio-miedo a las caídas (26 EAC y 6 ENC), y 30 sobre calidad de vida (18 EAC y 12 ENC) Conclusión: Los efectos de TCC sobre la OA son contradictorios, aunque se observa una tendencia positiva respecto al control de dolor y la mejora en la funcionalidad física. Respecto a los efectos sobre el equilibrio-miedo a la caída se ha registrado una mejora significativa en el equilibrio estático y dinámico, y en la confianza respecto al miedo a la caída. Con relación a la calidad de vida la práctica del TCC aporta mejoras en las dimensiones de bienestar emocional, percepción de sí mismo, bienestar corporal. Estos resultados obtenidos deben ser tomados con cierta precaución dado que gran número de los estudios examinados muestran carencias metodológicas en cuanto al diseño de investigación (muestras reducidas, carencias en los criterios de inclusión y de exclusión de los participantes, deficiencias en los análisis estadísticos, carencias en la estandarización de la medición de resultados, etc.) y la información específica respecto a las condiciones del programa de TCC utilizado (el estilo practicado, la dosificación, la experiencia de los instructores, la altura en las posturas, el tiempo de ejecución de cada forma, etc.).


Aim: This paper reviews international scientific studies aimed at determining the benefits of practicing Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on knee osteoarthritis (OR), balance, fear of falling, and quality of life. Method: A bibliographic search of eight international databases was undertaken (Medline-Pubmed, Scirus, Pascal, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS y PsycINFO) until April 2012. Results: A total of 74 studies were analyzed, 13 of them corresponding to systematic reviews and 61 to specific studies (42 randomized controlled studies (EAC) and 19 non-controlled studies (ENC)). In particular, 11 studies were analyzed regarding knee osteoarthritis (7 EAC and 4 ENC), 32 regarding balance-fear of falling (26 EAC and 6 ENC), and 30 regarding quality of life (18 EAC and 12 ENC). Conclusion: The effects of TCC on knee osteoarthritis are contradictory although a positive tendency was observed regarding control of pain and the improvement of physical functionality. Regarding the effects on balance-fear of falling, a significant improvement in static and dynamic balance was observed as well as confidence in terms of fear of falling. Regarding quality of life, TCC practice improves emotional well-being, self-perception and physical well-being. The obtained results should be treated with some caution since many of the studies examined show methodological weaknesses in the design (small samples, lack of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the participants, deficiencies in the statistical analyses, lack of standardization in the measurement of results, etc.), and the specific information about the conditions of the TCC program applied (style practised, dose, experience of the instructors, posture height, time spent carrying out each form).



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Palabras clave/key words

Tai Chi Chuan; osteoartritis; equilibrio; miedo a la caída; calidad de vida; osteoarthritis; balance, fear of falling; quality of life.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

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