Perceiving movement patterns: Implications for skill evaluation, correction and development. [Percepción de los patrones de movimiento: Implicaciones para la evaluación, corrección y el desarrollo de habilidades].

Georgia Giblin, Damian Farrow, Machar Reid, Kevin Ball, Bruce Abernethy

Resumen


Skill practitioners such as coaches, judges, and rehabilitation specialists rely heavily on the visual observation of movement to analyse performance, concomitantly performers of movement rely heavily on kinaesthetic sensitivity to produce movements of desired precision. The observation of movement errors (by coaches or therapists) and the correction of movement errors (by performers or patients) depend on fundamentally different perceptual systems that may differ in their sensitivity, units of control and trainability. This paper first examines the skill of perceiving fundamental movement characteristics and patterns (i.e., movement kinematics) by reviewing sport expertise literature that has investigated the capabilities of both expert performers and expert observers. Important expertise related differences in visual perceptual skill are discussed with a focus on perceptual and motor contributions to perceptual skill. Theories related to the perception of others movement patterns such as common coding are reviewed with a focus on implications for skill practitioners. Limitations in the current visual observation literature are considered, in particular the need to more directly examine the perceptual capabilities of skill practitioners to reliably differentiate changes in kinematics. The critical parallel issue of the kinaesthetic sensitivity of the patient or athlete is also reviewed, highlighting the need to know the magnitude of the differences between visual and kinaesthetic sensitivities for changes in movement kinematics in order to understand some of the challenges involved in matching detection of movement pattern errors to correction of these errors. Future research directions are discussed; particularly key methodological issues which may help directly establish perceptual sensitivity.

Resumen

Profesionales en habilidades, tales como entrenadores, jueces y especialistas en rehabilitación, dependen en gran medida de la observación visual para analizar el rendimiento, así como aquellos que realizan el movimiento dependen en gran medida de la sensibilidad cinestésica para producir movimientos con precisión. La capacidad de determinar de forma precisa las características fundamentales del movimiento a través de la observación es fundamental para ofrecer una evaluación, diagnóstico y corrección eficaces. Del mismo modo, la capacidad de controlar con precisión la ejecución del movimiento es central para la producción de patrones de movimiento deseados. La observación de errores del movimiento (por entrenadores y terapeutas) y la corrección de estos errores (por atletas o pacientes) dependen fundamentalmente de diferentes sistemas de percepción que pueden diferir en su sensibilidad, unidad de control y capacidad de entrenamiento. En este trabajo se examina en primer lugar, la habilidad de percibir las características del movimiento y los patrones fundamentales (es decir, la cinemática del movimiento) mediante una revisión bibliográfica de expertos del deporte que han investigado tanto las capacidades de los atletas como de los observadores expertos. Importantes diferencias en el conocimiento especializado referente a las habilidades en percepción visual son discutidas, centrándose en las contribuciones perceptivas y motoras a la habilidad de percepción. Las teorías relacionadas con la percepción de otros patrones de movimiento, tales como la codificación común, son revisados haciendo especial hincapié en las implicaciones para los practicantes en habilidades. A continuación se consideran las limitaciones en la bibliografía actual sobre la observación visual, en particular, la necesidad de examinar de forma más directa las capacidades perceptivas de los atletas para diferenciar de forma fiable los cambios cinemáticos. Además, de forma paralela, se analiza una cuestión clave como es la sensibilidad cinestésica del paciente o deportista, destacando la necesidad de conocer la magnitud de las diferencias entre las sensibilidades visuales y cinestésicas durante los cambios en la cinemática del movimiento, con el fin de comprender algunos de los desafíos involucrados en la relación entre la detección de errores en patrones de movimiento y la corrección de estos errores. Por último se discuten futuras líneas de investigación; en particular aquellas cuestiones metodológicas clave que pueden ayudar a establecer directamente la sensibilidad perceptiva.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2015.03901

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Palabras clave/key words


perception; observation; kinematics; kinaesthesia; expertise; percepción; observación, cinestesia, experiencia.

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RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte
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Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
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