The presence of the head coach during a small-sided game: effects on players´ internal load and technical performance. [La presencia del entrenador durante un juego reducido: efectos sobre la carga interna y rendimiento técnico].

Moisés Falces-Prieto, David Casamichana, Eduardo Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Bernardo Requena-Sánchez, Christopher Carling, Luis Jesús Suárez-Arronez



The aim of the study was to examine whether the presence/absence of the head coach influenced soccer players´ heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and technical performance during a small-sided game (SSG). The participants in the study were 27 young male soccer players (age: 17.0 ± 1.0 years; height: 176.0 ± 5.2 cm; weight: 67.6 ± 7.9 kg; HRmax: 195.1 ± 0.7 bpm). The SSG were practiced with the presence (PHC) or absence (AHC) of the head coach. Each SSG had duration of 6 min followed by a 5 min rest period. Significant differences were observed for HRmax (PHC: 190.4 ± 10.8; AHC: 182.0 ± 11.9), HRmean (PHC: 175.3 ± 9.4; AHC: 167.0 ± 13.1), RPE (PHC: 7.6 ± 0.8; AHC: 5.8 ± 1.1) and >90% HRmax (PHC: 54.09 ± 33.14; AHC: 46.71 ± 35.61). Significant differences in 4 technical actions: % success in passing (PHC: 59.05 ± 23.11; AHC: 71.08 ± 18.69), % Unsuccessful Passes (UP) (PHC: 40.95 ± 23.11; AHC: 28.92 ± 18.69), Number of UP (PHC: 3.19 ± 1.69; AHC: 2.26 ± 1.58) and total number of control-conduction-passes (CCP) + Successful Passes (SP) (PHC: 0.81 ± 0.83, AHC: 0.52 ± 0.64). This study shows that the presence or not of the head coach during SSG significantly influences the intensity of the players and the technical/tactical actions.


El objetivo del estudio fue examinar como la presencia/ausencia del entrenador, influyó sobre la frecuencia cardíaca (FC), percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (PSE) y rendimiento técnico durante un juego reducido (JR).  Participaron 27 jugadores jóvenes (edad: 17.0 ± 1.0 años; altura: 176.0 ± 5.2 cm; peso: 67.6 ± 7.9 kg; FCmax: 195.1 ± 0.7 ppm). El JR fue realizado en presencia (PE) /ausencia (AE) del entrenador. Cada JR tuvo una duración de 6 min seguida de 5 min de recuperación. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la carga interna: PE (FCmax:190.4 ± 10.8; FCmed:175.3 ± 9.4; PSE: 7.6 ± 0.8 y >90% FCmax: 54.09 ± 33.14) AE (FCmax:182.0 ± 11.9; FCmed:167.0 ± 13.1; PSE: 5.8 ± 1.1 y >90% FCmax: 46.71 ± 35.61). Diferencias significativas en acciones técnicas: % Pases correctos (PE: 59.05 ± 23.11; AE: 71.08 ± 18.69) % Pases incorrectos (PE: 40.95 ± 23.11; AE: 28.92 ± 18.69), Número de pases incorrectos (PE: 3.19 ± 1.69; AE: 2.26 ± 1.58) y número total de control-conducción-pase correcto (PE: 0.81 ± 0.83, AE: 0.52 ± 0.64). Este estudio demuestra que la presencia o no del entrenador durante un juego reducido tiene influencia significativa en la intensidad y rendimiento técnico-táctico de los jugadores.



Abrantes, C.I.; Nunes, M.I.; Maçãs, V.M.; Leite, N.M., & Sampaio, J.E. (2012). Effects of the number of players and game type constraints on heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and technical actions of small-sided soccer games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research26(4): 976-981.

Aguiar, M.; Botelho, G.; Lago, C.; Maçãs, V.M., & Sampaio, J.E. (2012). A review on the effects of soccer small-sided games. Journal of Human Kinetics, 33: 103-113.

Aughey, R.J. (2011). Increased high-intensity activity in elite Australian football finals matches. International journal of sports physiology and performance6(3), 367-379.

Bangsbo, J. (1998). Optimal preparation for the world cup in soccer. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17, 697-709.

Borg, G.; Hassmen, P., & Lagerstrom, M. (1987). Perceived exertion related to heart rate and blood lactate during arm and leg exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology56(6), 679-685.

Casamichana, D., & Castellano, J. (2010). Time-motion, heart rate, perceptual and motor behaviour demands in small-sides soccer games: effects of pitch size. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28 (14),1615-1623.

Casamichana, D.; Castellano, J.; González-Morán, A.; García-Cueto, H., & García-López, J. (2011). Demanda fisiológica en juegos reducidos de fútbol con diferente orientación del espacio. RICYDE. Revista Internacional Ciencias del Deporte23(7), 141-154.

Casamichana, D., & Castellano, J. (2012). Comparing the physical demands of friendly matches and small-sided games in semiprofessional soccer players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research26(3): 837-843.

Castagna, C.; Impellizzeri, F.M.; Chaouachi, A., & Manzi, V. (2013). Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: a team study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research27(11), 2959-65.

Castellano, J.; Casamichana, D., & Dellal, A. (2013). Influence of game format and number of players on heart rate responses and physical demands in small-sided soccer games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research27(5), 1295-303.

Castellano, J.; Perea, A.; Alday, L., & Hernández, A. (2008). The Measuring and Observation Tool in Sports. Behavior Research Methods40(3), 898-905.

Coutts, A.J.; Rampinini, E.; Marcora, S.M.; Castagna, C., & Impellizzeri, F.M. (2009). Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport,  12(1), 79-84.

Dellal, A.; Chamari, K.; Pintus, A.; Girard, O.; Cotte, T., & Keller, D. (2008). Heart rate responses during small-sided games and short intermittent running training in elite soccer players: a comparative study. Journal of  Strength & Conditioning Research22(5): 1449-1457.

Dellal, A.; Drust, B., & Lago-Penas, C. (2012). Variation of activity demands in small-sided soccer games.  International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(5): 370-375.

Dellal, A.; Lago-Penas, C.; Wong, P., & Chamari, K. (2011). Effect of the number of ball contacts within bouts of 4 vs. 4 small-sided soccer games. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance6(3), 322-33.

Dellal, A.; Varliette, C.; Owen, A.; Chirico, E.N., & Pialoux, V. (2012). Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction. Journal of  Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(10), 2712-20.

Fanchini, M.; Azzalin, A.; Castagna, C.; Schena, F.; McCall, A., & Impellizzeri, F.M. (2011). Effect of bout duration on exercise intensity and technical performance of small-sided games in soccer. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research25(2), 453-458.

Gutiérrez, A.; Camerino, O., & Anguera, M. (2011). Identificación y análisis del aprendizaje del judo mediante la metodología observacional. Apunts Educación Física y Deportes, 104, 46-55.

Harper, L.D.; West, D.J.; Stevenson, E., & Russell, M. (2014). Technical Performance Reduces during the Extra-Time Period of Professional Soccer Match-Play. PLoS ONE 9(10): e110995

Hill-Haas, S.; Coutts, A.; Rowsell, G., & Dawson, B. (2009). Generic versus small-sided game training in soccer.  International Journal of  Sports Medicine30(3), 636-642.

Hill-Haas, S.; Coutts, A.; Rowsell, G., & Dawson, B. (2009, b). Generic versus small-sided game training in soccer. International Journal of  Sports Medicine30(9), 636-642.

Hill-Haas, S.V.; Dawson, B.; Impellizzeri, F.M., & Coutts, A.J. (2011). Physiology of small-sided games training in football: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 41(3), 199-220.

Hopkins, W. (2006). Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials, with adjustment for a subject characteristic. Sport Science, 10, 46-50.

Jennings, D.; Cormack, S.J.; Coutts, A.J., & Aughey, R.J. (2012). GPS analysis of an international field hockey tournament. International journal of sports physiology and performance7(3), 224-231.

Kelly, D.M., & Drust, B. (2009). The effect of pitch dimensions on heart rate responses and technical demands of small-sided soccer games in elite players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport12(4), 475-479.

Köklü, Y.; Sert, O.; Alemdaroğlu, U., & Arslan, Y. (2014). Comparison of the physiological responses and time motion characteristics of young soccer players in small sided games: the effect of goalkeeper.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ahead of print

Krustrup, P.; Mohr, M.; Steensberg, A.; Bencke, J.; Kjaer, M., & Bangsbo, J. (2006). Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(6): 1165-1174.

Mallo, J., & Navarro, E. (2007). Physical load imposed on soccer players during small-sided training games.  Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 47:00-00.

Mazzetti, S.A.; Kraemer, W.J.; Volek, J.S.; Duncan, N.D.; Ratamess, N.A.; Gómez, A.L.; Newton, R.U.; Häkkinen, K., & Fleck, S.J. (2000). The influence of direct supervision of resistance training on strength performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise32(6): 1175-1184.

Marcora, S.M.; Staiano, W. (2010). The limit to exercise tolerance in humans: mind over muscle?.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 10.1007/s00421-010-1418-6.

Marcora, S.M.; Staiano, W.; Manning, V. (2009). Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106:857-864.

Ngo, JK.; Man-Chung, T.; Smith, W.; Carling, C.; Gar-Sun, C., & Wong, P. (2012). The effects of man-marking on work intensity in small-sided soccer games. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11(1), 109-114.

Owen, A.L.; Twist, C., & Ford, F. (2004). Small-sided games: the physiological and technical effect of altering pitch size and player numbers. Insight, 7(2), 50-53.

Owen, A.L.; Wong, D.P.; Paul, D.; Dellal, A., & Owen, A.L. (2014). Physical and Technical Comparisons between Various-Sided Games within Professional Soccer. International  Journal of Sports Medicine35(4): 286-292.

Rampinini, E.; Impellizzeri, F.M.; Castagna, C.; Abt, G.; Chamari, K.; Sassi, A., & Marcora,   S. M. (2007).  Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games. Journal of Sport Sciences25(6), 659-666.

Radziminski, L.; Rompa, P.; Barnat, W.; Dargiewicz, R., & Jastrzebski, Z. (2013). A comparison of the physiological and technical effects of high-intensity running and small-sided games in young soccer players. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching8(3), 455-465.

Redwood- Brown, A. (2008). Passing patterns before and after goal scoring in FA Premier League Soccer. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport8(3): 172-182.

Sánchez-Sánchez, J.; Yagüe, J.M.; Fernández, R.C., y Petisco, C. (2014). Efectos de un entrenamiento con juegos reducidos sobre la técnica y la condición física de jóvenes futbolistas. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 37, 221-234.

Sánchez-Sánchez, J.; Pereira, J.M.; Guillén Rodríguez, J.; Martín García, D.; Romo Martín, D.; Rodríguez Fernández, A. & Villa Vicente, J.G. (b) (2014). Efecto de la motivación del entrenador sobre la carga interna y el rendimiento físico de un juego de fútbol reducido. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte3(14), 169-176.

Sampaio, J.E.; Lago, C.; Gonçalves, B.; Maçãs, V.M., & Leite, N. (2013). Effects of pacing, status and unbalance in time motion variables, heart rate and tactical behaviour when playing 5-a-side football small-sided games. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport17(2), 229-33.

Suarez-Arrones, L.; Núñez, J.; Munguia-Izquierdo, D.; Portillo, J., & Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2013). Impact of Several Matches Within a Day on Physical Performance in Rugby Sevens Referees. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 8(5):496-501.

Tanaka, H.; Monahan, K.D., & Seals DR. (2001). Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 37(1): 153-156.

Tucker, R., & Noakes, T.D. (2009). The physiological regulation of pacing strategy during exercise: a critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine43(6): e1.

Palabras clave/key words

soccer; internal load; tactical-technical analysis; Fútbol; Carga Interna; Entrenador; Análisis técnico-táctico

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF (English) PDF

------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License