Effects of static-stretching and whole-body-vibration during warm-ups on bench-press kinematics in males and females college-aged. [Efectos de los estiramientos estáticos y vibraciones durante el calentamiento en los parámetros cinemáticos del press banca en hombres y mujeres estudiantes].

Esperanza Martín-Santana, Sonsoles Hernández-Sánchez, Azael J. Herrero-Alonso, David García-López


This study aimed to examine the effects of different specific warm-up protocols including static stretching (SS) and whole body vibrations (WBV) on kinematics and number of repetitions during a bench press set to failure in physically active male and female subjects. A secondary purpose was to analyze the role of sex on the warm-up induced effects.  24 participants (13 females and 11 males) were randomly assigned to complete 3 experimental conditions in a cross-over design: SS, WBV and SS+WBV. After each condition, participants performed one bench-press set to volitional exhaustion with a load equivalent to the 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in number of repetitions, mean and maximal accelerative portion (AP), mean and maximal velocity, and lifting velocity time-course pattern. Males showed significantly higher values regarding number of repetitions achieved and maximal and mean lifting velocity. However, regarding the percentage of the concentric phase in which barbell is accelerated, there were no sex differences. In conclusion, no relevant difference in kinematics variables can be shown when applying any of these three different warm-up protocols, these results may be useful when designing training programs. We recommend the protocol SS due to the cost-benefit relationship.


El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de diferentes protocolos de calentamiento incluyendo estiramientos estáticos (EE) y vibraciones de cuerpo entero (WBV) en variables cinemáticas y número de repeticiones completadas en una serie de press banca realizada hasta el fallo muscular, en hombres y mujeres físicamente activos. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el papel de la variable sexo en los efectos inducidos por el calentamiento. 24 participantes (13 mujeres y 11 hombres) completaron, de forma aleatoria, 3 condiciones experimentales con un diseño cruzado: EE, WBV, y EE+WBV. Al terminar cada protocolo de calentamiento los sujetos realizaron una serie de press banca al fallo con una carga equivalente al 60% de una repetición máxima (1RM). No se observaron diferencias significativas entre condiciones experimentales en lo que respecta al número de repeticiones completadas, velocidad media y máxima, porcentaje acelerativo (AP) y evolución de la velocidad a lo largo de la serie. En el grupo de los hombres se observaron unos valores significativamente mayores en el número de repeticiones y velocidad media y máxima en comparación con las mujeres. Sin embargo, cuando se examina los percentiles en los que la barra acelera en la fase concéntrica no existen diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. En conclusión, no existen diferencias significativas relativas a los parámetros cinemáticos o al número de repeticiones completadas cuando se aplican estiramientos estáticos, vibraciones de cuerpo completo o una combinación de ambas estrategias durante el calentamiento, estos resultados pueden ser útiles para el diseño del calentamiento en programas de entrenamiento. Debido a la relación coste-beneficio se puede recomendar el protocolo EE.




Armstrong, W.J.; Grinnell, D.C., & Warren, G.S. (2010). The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the vertical jump height. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(10), 2835-2839.

Beedle, B.; Rytter, S.J.; Healy, R.C., & Ward, T.R. (2008). Pretesting static and dynamic stretching does not affect maximal strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1838-1843.

Behm, D.G., & Chaouachi, A. (2011). A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(11), 2633-2651.

Cochrane, D.J.; Stannard, S.R.; Sargeant, A.J., & Rittweger, J. (2008). The rate of muscle temperature increase during acute whole-body vibration exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(4), 441-448.

Courtright, S.H.; McCormick, B.W.; Postlethwaite, B.E.; Reeves, C.J., & Mount, M.K. (2013). A meta-analysis of sex differences in physical ability: Revised estimates and strategies for reducing differences in selection contexts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), 623-641.

Delecluse, C.; Roelants, M., & Verschueren, S. (2003). Strength increase after whole body vibration compared with resistance training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35(6), 1033-1041.

Egan, A.D.; Cramer, J.T.; Massey, L.L., & Marek, S.M. (2006). Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque and mean power output in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women’s basketball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(4), 778-782.

Ferguson, S.L.; Kim, E.; Seo, D., & Bemben, M.G. (2013).  Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(12), 3329-3334.

Fortier, J.; Lattier, G., & Babault, N. (2013).  Acute effects of short-duration isolated static stretching or combined with dynamic exercises on strength, jump and sprint performance. Science & Sports, 28, 111-117.

Fradkin, A.J.; Zazryn, T.R., & Smoliga, J.M. (2010).  Effects of warming-up on physical performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 140-148.

García-López, D.; Hernández-Sánchez, S.; Martín, E.; Marín, P.J.; Zarzosa, F., & Herrero, J.A. (in press).  Free-weight augmentation with elastic bands improves bench-press kinematics in professional rugby players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

García-López, D.; Herrero, J.A.; Abadía, O.; Garcia-Isla, F.J.; Uali, I., & Izquierdo, M. (2008).  The role of resting duration in the kinematic pattern of two consecutive bench-press sets to failure in elite sprint kayakers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(9), 764-769.

García-López, D.; Izquierdo, M.; Rodríguez, S.; González-Calvo, G.; Sáinz, N.; Abadía, O., & Herrero, J.A. (2010).  Inter-set stretching does not influence kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1361-1368.

Hedrick, A. (1992). Physiological responses to warm-up. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(5), 25-27.

Jacobs, P.L., & Burns, P. (2009). Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(1), 51-57.

Kinser, A.M.; Ramsey, M.W.; O’Bryant, H.S.; Ayres, C.A.; Sands, W.A., & Stone, M.H. (2008). Vibration and stretching effects on flexibility and explosive strength in young gymnasts. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(1), 133-140.

Lapole, T., & Perot, C. (2010). Effects of repeated Achilles tendon vibration on triceps surae force production. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20(4), 648-654.

Marín, P.J.; Bunker, D.; Rhea, M.R., & Ayllón, F.N. (2009). Neuromuscular activity during whole-body vibration of different amplitudes and footwear conditions: implications for prescription of vibratory stimulation. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2311-2316.

Marín, P.J.; Herrero, A.J.; Milton, J.G.; Hazell, T.J., & García-López, D. (2013). Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(7), 1807-1812.

Marín, P.J.; Herrero, A.J.; Sáinz, N.; Rhea, M.R., & García-López, D. (2010). Effects of different magnitudes of whole-body vibration on arm muscular performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(9), 2506-2511.

McDonagh, M.J., & Davies, C.T. (1984). Adaptive response of mammalian skeletal muscle to exercise with high loads. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 52(2), 139-155.

Mischi, M., & Cardinale, M. (2009). The effects of a 28-Hz vibration on arm muscle activity during isometric exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(3), 645-653.

Molacek, Z.D.; Conley, D.S.; Evetovich, T.K., & Hinnerichs, K.R. (2010).  Effects of low-and high-volume stretching on bench press performance in collegiate football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(3), 711-716.

Ritzmann, R.; Kramer, A.; Gruber, M.; Gollhofer, A., & Taube, W. (2010). EMG activity during whole body vibration: motion artifacts or stretch reflexes? European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(1), 143-151.

Ronnestad, B.R. (2009).  Acute effects of various whole-body vibration frequencies on lower-body power in trained and untrained subjects. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(4), 1309-1315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318199d720

Rubini, E.C.; Costa, A.L., & Gomes, P.S. (2007). The effects of stretching on strength performance. Sports Medicine, 37(3), 213-224.

Simic, L., Sarabon, N., & Markovic, G. (2013).  Does pre-exercise static stretching inhibit maximal muscular performance? A meta-analytical review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(2), 131-148.

Stone, M., & O’Bryant, E. (1987). Weight Training. A Scientific Approach. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess.

Thomas, J.R.; Salazar, W., &Landers, D.M. (1991). What is missing in p < .05? Effect size. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(3), 344-348.

Torres, E.M.; Kraemer, W.J.; Vingren, J.L.; Volek, J.S.; Hatfield, D.L.; Spiering, B.A.; Ho, J.Y.; Fragala, M.S.; Thomas, G.A.; Anderson, J.M.; Häkkinen, K., & Maresh, C.M. (2008). Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1279-1285.

Unick, J.; Kieffer, H.S.; Cheesman, W., & Feeney, A. (2005). The acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(1), 206-212.

Yamaguchi, T., & Ishii, K. (2005). Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 677-683.

Yapicioglu, B., Colakoglu, M., Colakoglu, Z., Gulluoglu, H., Bademkiran, F., & Ozkaya, O. (2013). Effects of a Dynamic Warm-Up, Static Stretching or Static Stretching with Tendon Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance and EMG Responses. Journal of Human Kinetics, 39(4), 49-57.

Palabras clave/key words

accelerative portion; barbell velocity; neuromuscular performance; aceleración; velocidad de la barra; rendimiento neuromuscular.

Texto completo/Full Text:

PDF (English)

------------------------ 0 -------------------------

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte

Publisher: Ramón Cantó Alcaraz
ISSN:1885-3137 - Periodicidad Trimestral / Quarterly
Creative Commons License